Adaptation of Hmong Youth and Generational Issues
Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD
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Sexual Health." Sex Education, 12(1): 109-123.
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Consensual Qualitative Analysis of Family Photos."Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13(1).
Xiong, Y.S. and N. Xiong. (2011). "The Prevalence of English Monolingualism and Its Association with Generational
Status among Hmong Americans, 2005-2009." Hmong Studies Journal, 12: 1-22.
Xiong, Z.B. and J. Huang. (2011). "Predicting Hmong Male and Female Youth's Delinquent Behavior: An
Exploratory Study." Hmong Studies Journal, 12: 1-34.
Bakken, J.P. and B. B. Brown. (2010). “Adolescent Secretive Behavior: African American and Hmong Adolescents’
Strategies and Justifications for Managing Parents’ Knowledge about Peers.” Journal of Research on Adolescence
20 (2): 359-388.
Moua, M.Y. and S.D. Lamborn. (2010). Hmong American Adolescents’ Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization
Practices.” Journal of Adolescent Research 25(3): 416-440.
Schuster, R. (2010). Examining Treatment Outcomes for Hmong American Youth with Delinquency Problems. PhD
Dissertation, Indiana University.
Boulden, W.T. (2009). “Gay Hmong: A Multifacted Clash of Cultures.” Journal of Gay and Lesbian
Social Services 21(2): 134-150.
Detzner, D.F. Senyurekli, A.R., Yang, P.D. and Khadija S. Sheikh. (2009). “Family
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Lee, P. (2009). Racial Assimilation and Popular Culture: Hmong Youth (Sub)cultures and the
Persistance of the Color Line. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Heu, M. (2008). Challenges of Volunteerism within a Cultural Community: Case Study of Young
Hmong Adults in Kitchener-Waterloo. M.S.W. Thesis, Wilfrid Laurier University (Canada).
Jesilow J. and M. Xiong. (2007). "Constructing a Social Problem: Suicide, Acculturation and the Hmong."Hmong
Studies Journal, Vol 8, 2007
Lee, Stacey J. (2005). “Learning about Race, Learning about “America”: Hmong American High School Students.
In Lois Weis and Michelle Fine (Editors) Beyond Silenced Voices: Class, Race, and Gender in United States
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Stacey J. Lee. (2005). Up Against Whiteness: Race, School, and Immigrant Youth. New York: Teachers College
Zha Blong Xiong, Patricia A. Eliason, Daniel F. Detzner and Michael J. Cleveland. (2005). "Southeast Asian
perceptions of good adolescents and good parents." Journal of Psychology. The Journal of Psychology, 139(2):
Griffin, Lisa Anne. (2004). Immigrant schoolgirl: Making the American dream the Hmong way. PhD Dissertation,
Kaiser, Tamara L. (2004). "Caught Between Cultures: Hmong Parents in America’s Sibling Society." Hmong
Studies Journal, Volume 5. www.hmongstudies.org
Xiong, Zha Blong, Detzner, Daniel and Michael J. Cleveland. (2004). "Southeast Asian Adolescents’ Perceptions of
Immigrant Parenting Practices." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 5. www.hmongstudies.org
Yer J. Thao. (2003). “Empowering Mong Students: Hmong and School Factors.” The Urban Review 35(1): 25-42.
Lor, Kevin C. (2003). Factors Leading Hmong Youth to Join Gangs. M.A. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.
Khatharya Um. (2003). “A Dream Denied: Educational Experiences of Southeast Asian American Youth Issues and
Recommendations.” Research Paper published by Southeast Asian Resource Action Center, Washington D.C. 23
Buenaflor, Manuelita B. (2003). Does Awareness of Spiritual Belief Enable a Juvenile in Counseling to Make
Changes in Behavior? PhD Dissertation, Union Institute and University.
Hagstrom, Deirdre Abbey. (2003). Gifted Hmong Girls and Higher Education: Can They Maintain Traditional
Hmong Values as They Prepare for Non-Traditional Careers? M.A. Thesis, Minnesota State University, Mankato.
Powers, Steven R. (2003). Asian American Students’ Experiences of Secondary United States History Course
Work. M.A. Thesis, Hamline University.
Swartz, Teresa., Lee, Jennifer C., and Jeylan T. Mortimer. (2003). “Achievements of First-Generation Hmong
Youth: Findings from the Youth Development Study.” CURA Reporter, University of Minnesota, Spring 2003, 15-21.
AU: Lee, SJ TI: Learning "America" - Hmong American high school students SO: EDUCATION AND URBAN
SOCIETY BP: 233 EP: 246 PG: 14 PY: 2002 PD: FEB VL: 34 IS: 2
Pranee Liamputtong (2002). “Gender, Sexuality, and Marriage among Hmong Youth in Australia.” From Coming of
Age in South and Southeast Asia: Youth, Courtship and Sexuality, eds. L. Manderson and P. Liamputtong.
Richmond, British Columbia, Canada: Curzon, pp. 249-265.
Mai Xiong. (2002). A descriptive study of Hmong youth gang members in the California Central Valley. EdD
Dissertation, University of the Pacific.
Xiong, Shanie. (2002). Hmong Family Processes and Their Impact on Hmong Adolescents’ Delinquent Behaviors:
A Correlational Study. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.
AU: Lee, SJ TI More than "model minorities" or "delinquents": A look at Hmong American high school students SO:
HARVARD EDUCATIONAL REVIEW BP: 505 EP: 528 PG: 24 PY: 2001 PD: FAL VL: 71 IS: 3
Ly, C. (2001). “The conflict between law and culture: The case of the Hmong in America.” Wisconsin Law Review.
Yang, Nou. (2001). The Bicultural Competency of Hmong Adolescent Girls: Negotiating Gender Messages in the
Home Context. MA Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Ellege, M.D. (2000). Prevalence and Predictors of Adolescent Depression in a Multiethnic Sample. MA Thesis,
University of the Pacific.
Xiong, Zha Blong (2000). Hmong American parent-adolescent problem-solving interactions: An analytic induction
analysis, PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota
Lee, Pao (1999). Language maintenance and language shift among second-generation Hmong teenagers, EdD
dissertation. University of San Francisco.
Mason-Chagil, G. (1999). Hmong parents' perspectives on the role of schools in raising and educating children in
the United States, PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota.
Theune, J.T. (1999). Hmong Youth and Gangs: One Teacher’s Response to Violence. MA Thesis, Hamline
Vang, Ka and Mary Beth Higgins. (1999). An Examination of Gangs in Eau Claire, Wisconsin and the Community’s
Racial Perception of Gangs. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.
Yang, A.T. (1999). "Hmong-American Students: Challenges and Opportunities." In Asian-American Education:
Prospects and Challenges. C.C. Park and M.M. Chi, Editors. Westport, CT: Bergin and Harvey. 218-236.
Cobb, Jennifer Karen (1998). The relationships among measures of phonemic awareness and language
proficiency assessments for at-risk high school students of three language backgrounds, MA dissertation.
California State University – Fresno.
Lor, Song. (1998). Parental Influences and Academic Success of Hmong Adolescent Students: Is there a
Relationship? MA Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.
Lo, Xiong A. (1998). Hmong High School Students’ Attitudes and Aspirations Toward Education. MA Thesis,
University of Wisconsin-Stout.
O'Reilly, Tim Michael (1998). An investigation of Hmong students' academic success in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, EdD
dissertation. University of Minnesota.
Vang, Chinseng Value. (1998). The effect of parenting classes on Hmong parents' parenting styles and potential
for abuse. M.S.W. thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.
Vang, Ka. (1998). The relationship between cultural retention among selected Hmong parents and the academic
achievement of their children. Ed.D. dissertation, University of San Francisco.
Vang, Tou K. (1998). Hmong parents' attitude and perception toward Hmong juvenile delinquency in America. M.S.
thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.
Xiong, Michael Moua. (1998). Hmong students' attitude toward family life and education. M.S. thesis, University of
Fang, Chao (1997). Intergenerational values differences between younger and older Hmong in the United States,
PhD dissertation. United State International University.
Getahun, Linde Joveda. (1997). Women in cultural transition: Voices of Hmong mothers in an urban school. Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Hang, MayKao Yangblongsua. (1997) "Growing Up Hmong American: Truancy Policy and Girls." Hmong Studies
Journal Vol. 1 No. 2.
Howard, Katsuyo. (1997). Hmong families. In Understanding cultural parenting values, traditions and practices.
Bavolek, Stephen J. (Ed.), (pp. ). Park City, Utah: Family Development Resources.
Lee, S.J. (1997). “The Road to College: Hmong American Women’s Pursuit of Higher Education.” Harvard
Educational Review 67(4): 803-27.
Wolff, Ada Mercedes (1997). An outcome evaluation of the effects of a parent education program for Hmong
parents (refugees), MS dissertation. California State University – Fresno.
Howard, Katsuyo Kunugi (1996). Hmong Parenting Practices In Transition: A Participatory Study, EDD dissertation.
University of San Francisco.
Tran, Quang Duong, Serge Lee, Sokley Khoi. (1996). Ethnic and gender differences in parental expectations and
life stress. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal 13(6): 515.
Yang, Nou. (1996). Hmong parents' views on American education and parent/teacher conferences. M.S. thesis,
University of Wisconsin, Stout.
Fendya, Jennifer Anne. (1995). Being a Hmong woman in America: A phenomenological study of female Hmong
college students. Ph.D. dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno. (UMI order no. DA
Moua, Seng Alex. (1995). Hmong students in San Diego: contributing factors in the decision of whether or not to
pursue college . M.S.W. thesis, San Diego State University, 1995.
Neira, John E. (1995). Acculturation of Hmong students: how they feel about life in the United States and their
school guidance counselors. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.
Hmong Youth Culture Awareness Project. (1994). A Free People: Our Voices, Our Stories, Our Dreams.
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Hutchinson, R. and M. McNall (1994). “Early Marriage in a Hmong Cohort.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 56
(August 1994): 579-590.
Lamb, J.A. (1994). Health-Related Fitness in Hmong Youth, Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse.
Vang, M.M. (1994). Hmong Mothers and Daughters: Cultural Adjustment and Conflict. Master’s Thesis, California
State University, Stanislaus.
White, Emma Tao (1994). Criterion validity and sensitivity of the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory with
refugee adolescents. Ph.D. thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.
Dana, A.F. (1993). Courtship and Marriage Traditions of the Hmong. Master's Thesis, California State University,
Dunnigan, T., McNall, M., & J.T. Mortimer. (1993). “The Problem of Metaphorical Nonequivalence in Cross-Cultural
Survey Research: Comparing the Mental Health Statuses of Hmong Refugee and General Population
Adolescents.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 24(3): 344-365.
Helsel, Deborah Gail (1993). ‘Here There Is Much More And Much Less’: Hmong-American Families, Culture And
Childbearing In The ‘Land Of The Giants’, PhD dissertation. University of California - San Francisco.
Holbrook, D. (1993). The Relationship of Parental Expectations and Acculturation on Hmong Elementary Student’s
Achievement. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico.
Greene, W.L. (1993). Identifying Cultural Values with Story Completions: Comparing the Narratives of Hmong and
American Children. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Fresno.
Jordan, B. (1993). Home-School Partnerships: The Needs and Perceptions of Hmong Parents. Master’s Thesis,
California State University, Fresno.
Trevison, C. (1993). “Changing Sexual Assault and the Hmong.” Indiana Law Review 27: 393-314.
Xiong, Z.B. (1993). Delinquency Among Hmong Youths: Sociocultural Adjustment Problems and Societal
Influences. Master’s Thesis, Mankato State University.
White, Emma Tao (1993). Criterion Validity And Sensitivity Of The Million Adolescent Personality Inventory With
Refugee Adolescents, PhD dissertation. California School of Professional Psychology – Fresno
Call, K.T. and M. McNall (1992). “Poverty, Ethnicity, and Youth Adjustment: A Comparison of Poor Hmong and Non-
Hmong Adolescents.” In Adolescence, Careers, and Cultures, edited by. W. Meeus, M. Goede, W. Kox and K.
Hurrelmann, 373-392. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Mouanoutoua, V.L. (1992). Acculturation and Risk for Child Maltreatment in the Hmong Community. PhD
Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.
Rick, K., and J. Forward (1992). “Acculturation and Perceived Intergenerational Differences Among Hmong Youth.”
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 23(1): 85-94.
Tokarz, M.L. (1992). Post-Secondary Plans of Hmong High School Students. Master’s Thesis, University of
Vang, A.T.K. (1992). A Descriptive Study of Academically Proficient Hmong High School Girl Dropouts. Ed.D
Dissertation, University of San Francisco, 1992.
Yang, W.S. (1992). A Comparison Study of Academically Successful and Unsuccessful Hmong Students in
Minnesota and West-Central Wisconsin. Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin -Stout.
Himes, H.K. (1991). Traditional Parenting Practices and Attitudes of the Hmong: A Foundation for a Culturally
Sensitive Parenting Program. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Fresno.
Jacobs, L. (1991). “Assessment Concerns: A Study of Cultural Differences, Teacher Concepts, and Inappropriate
Labeling.” Teacher Education and Special Education 14(1): 43-48.
Moore, D.L. (1991). “Between Cultures: Oral History of Hmong Teenagers in Minneapolis.” Hmong Forum 2: 39-57.
Vang, A.P. (1991). Availability of Educational Support Programs and a Counselor for Hmong High School Students
in Eau Claire Public High Schools. Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.
Weinstein-Shr, G. and N.Z. Henkin (1991). “Continuity and Change: Intergenerational Relations in Southeast Asian
Refugee Families.” Marriage and Family Review 16 (Summer 1991): 351-367.
Vang, V. (1991). Identifying the Needs of Hmong Parents Experiencing Cultural Conflicts in American Society.
Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.
Yang, D. (1991). “Generational Conflict Among the Hmong in the United States.” Hmong Forum 2 (1991): 35-38.
Moore, D.L. (1990). “Between Cultures: Oral History of Hmong Teenagers in Minneapolis.” Vietnam Generation 2,
no. 3: 38-52.
Rolnick, S. (1990). “Reducing Teenage Childbearing in the Hmong Community, First Year Results.” Vietnam
Generation 2, No. 3: 53-61.
Thao, T.J. (1990). An Exploratory Study of the Characteristics of Punky Hmong Adolescent Boys. Master’s Thesis,
Rhode Island College.
Trueba, H.T., Jacobs, L. and E. Kirton. (1990). Cultural Conflict and Adaptation: The Case of Hmong Children in
American Society. New York: Falmer Press, 1990.
Vang, S.M. (1990). The Effects of Hmong Family Responsibilities on the Level of Performance of Hmong Students
in the Vocational Program at the St. Paul Technical College, St. Paul, Minnesota. Master’s Thesis, University of
Wisconsin – Stout.
Westermeyer, J. (1990). “Psychiatric Services for Refugee Children: An Overview.” In Refugee Children: Theory,
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Lewis, J., Vang, L., and L.C. Li-Rong. (1989). “Identifying the Language-Learning Difficulties of Hmong Students:
Implications of Context and Culture.” Topics in Language Disorders 9(3): 21-37.
Moore, D.L. (1989). Dark Sky, Dark Land: Stories of the Hmong Boy Scouts of Troop 100. Eden Prairie, MN:
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Folsom, CA: Folsom Cordova Unified School District.
Goldstein, B.L. (1988). “In Search of Survival: The Education and Integration of Hmong Refugee Girls.” Journal of
Ethnic Studies 16 (Summer 1998): 1-27.
Hirayama, K.K. and H. Hirayama. (1988). “Stress, Social Supports and Adaptational Patterns in Hmong Refugee
Families.” Amerasia Journal 14 (Winter 1988): 93-108.
Ranard, D.A. (1988). “Young Adults Face Tough Choices.” In America: Perspectives on Refugee Resettlement 1
(November 1988): 10-11.
Vangay, J.V.N. (1988). Hmong Parents’ Cultural Attitudes and the Sex-Ratio Imbalance of Hmong Merced High
School Graduates.” Master’s Thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.
Scott, G.M. (1987). “To Catch or Not to Catch a Thief: A Case of Bride Theft Among the Lao Hmong Refugees in
Southern California.” Ethnic Groups 7: 137-151.
Sheybani, M.M. (1987). “Cultural Defense: One Person’s Culture is Another’s Crime.” Loyola of Los Angeles
International and Comparative Law Journal 9 (Summer 1987): 751-83.
Cohn, M. (1986). “Hmong Youth and the Hmong Future in America.” In the Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L.
Hendricks, B.T. Downing and A.S. Deinard, 197-201.
Goldstein, B.L. (1986). “Resolving Sexual Assault: Hmong and the American Legal System.” In The Hmong in
Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 135-43.
Hang, D. (1986). “Tam Tuab Neeg: Connecting the Generations.” The Hmong World 1: 33-41.
Meredith, W.H. and G.P. Rowe. (1986). “Changes in Hmong Refugee Marital Attitudes in America.” In The Hmong
in Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing and A.S. Deinard, 121-133.
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States.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 17 (Spring 1986): 117-126.
Goldstein, B.L. (1985). Schooling For Cultural Transitions: Hmong Girls And Boys In American Schools, PhD
dissertation, University of Wisconsin – Madison.