Health and Medical Issues Affecting the Hmong

Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD

Bart, G. et al. (2012). Superior Methadone Treatment Outcome in Hmong compared with non-Hmong Patients.
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Epub online prior to print.

Clarkin, P.F. (2012). War, forced displacement and growth in Laotian adults. Annals of Human Biology, 39(1): 36-45.

Collier, A.F., Munger, M. and Y.K. Moua.(2012). Hmong Mental Health Needs Assessment: A Community-Based
Partnership in a Small Mid-Western Community. American Journal of Community Psychology, 49: 73-86.

Gerdner, L.A. (2012). "Shamanism: Indications and Use by Older Hmong Americans with Chronic Illness."
Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13(1).

Im, H. (2012). A Social Ecology of Stress and Coping among Homeless Refugee Families. PhD Dissertation,
University of Minnesota.

Larson, C.J. (2012). The Relationship of Provider Cultural Competence and Utilization of Prenatal Care in the
Hmong of Minnesota, PhD Dissertation, Walden University.

Lee, S and J. Chang. (2012). "Mental Health Status of the Hmong Americans in 2011: Three Decades Revisited."
Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation, 11:1, 55-70.

Lee, S. and J. Chang. (2012). "Revisiting 37 Years Later: A Brief Summary of Existing Sources Related to
Hmong and their Mental Health Status." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13(2).

Meschke, L. and K. Dettmer. (2012). "Don't Cross a Man's Feet': Hmong Parent-Daughter Communication about
Sexual Health.: Sex Education, 12(1): 109-123.

Shippee, N.D., Pintor, J.K., McAlpine, D.D. and T.J. Beebe. (2012). "Need, Availability, and Quality of Interpreter
Services among Publicly Insured Latino, Hmong, and Somali Individuals in Minnesota."  Journal of Health Care for
the Poor and Underserved 23 (2012): 1073–1081.

Sheikh, M.Y. et al. (2012). "Prevalence of Hepatitis B Infection Among Young and Unsuspecting Hmong Blood
Donors in the Central California Valley. Journal of Community Health, 37:181-185.

Smalkoski, K., Herther, N.K., Xiong, Z.B., Ritsema, K., Vang, R. and R. Zheng. (2012). "Health Disparities
Research in the Hmong American Community: Implications for Practice and Policy ." Hmong Studies Journal,
Vol 13(2).

Smith, C. and L. Franzen-Castle. (2012). "Dietary Acculturation and Body Composition Predict American Hmong
Children’s Blood Pressure." American Journal of Human Biology 24: 666-674.

Srithi, K. et al. (2012). "Medicinal plants used in Hmong women's healthcare in northern Thailand." Journal of
Ethnopharmacology, 139 (2012) 119-135.

Yang, M.S., Burr, J.A. and J.E. Mutchler. (2012). "The Prevalence of Sensory Deficits, Functional Limitations,
and Disability Among Older Southeast Asians in the United States." Journal of Aging and Health 24: 1252-1274.

Thorburn, S., Kue, J., Keon, K.L. and P. Lo. (2011). "Medical Mistrust and Discrimination in Health Care: A
Qualitative Study of Hmong Women and Men." Journal of Community Health, Epub online prior to print.

Adler, S.R. (2011). “The Night-mare, Traditional Hmong Culture and Sudden Death.” In Shelley R.
Adler, Sleep Paralysis: Night-mares, Nocebos, and the Mind-Body Connection. New Brunswick, NJ:
Rutgers University Press, pp. 94-116.

Berger, A. (2011). Hmong Americans and Healthcare Inequalities and Solutions. B.A. Senior Thesis, San Francisco
State University.

Capps, L. (2011). "Ua Neeb Khu : A Hmong American Healing Ceremony." Journal of Holistic Nursing. 29(2): 98-106.

Depke, J.L. and A. Onitilo. (2011). “Coalition Building and the Intervention Wheel to Address
Breast Cancer Screening in Hmong Women.” Clinical Medicine and Research 9(1): 1-6.

Feliciano, S.M. (2011). Understanding Infant Feeding Choices Among Hmong American Women in Saint Paul,
MN. PhD Dissertation, Temple University.

Ho, I.K. and K.T. Dinh. (2011). “Cervical Cancer Screening Among Southeast Asian American
Women.” Journal of Immigrant Minority Health 13: 49-60.

Kue, J. (2011). Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer Among Hmong: Knowledge, Perceptions of Risk, and
Barriers to Hepatitis B Screening and Vaccination. Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University.

Luce, H., Redmer, J., Gideonsen, M., Dresang, L., Potter, B. and Sarina Schrager. (2011).
“Culturally Specific Maternity Care in Wisconsin.” Wisconsin Medical Journal 110(1): 32-37.

Malison, R.T., et al. (2011). “Inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity of DSM-IV opioid dependence
in a Hmong isolate using the Thai version of the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism
(SSADDA).” Addictive Behaviors 36: 156-160.

Mulasi-Pokhriyal U. and C. Smith. (2011). “Investigating Health and Diabetes Perceptions Among
Hmong American Children, 9-18 Years of Age.” Journal of Immigrant Minority Health 13: 470-477.

Sheikh, M.Y., Mouanoutoua,M. Walvick, M.D., Khang, L., Singh, J., Stoltz S. and P.K. Mills. (2011).
“Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection Among Hmong Immigrants in the San Joaquin Valley.”
Journal of Community Health 36: 42-46.

Thalacker, K.M. (2011). “Hypertension and the Hmong Community: Using the Health Belief
Model for Health Promotion.” Health Promotion Practice 12(4): 538-543.

Vang, K.M. (2011). Living a Double Life: How Hmong Adolescents adapt with Clashing Cultures. Ed.
S. Dissertation, California State University, Fresno.

Vue, W. et al. (2011). "Hmong Food Helps Us Remember Who We Are: Perspectives of Food Culture and Health
among Hmong Women with Young Children." Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 43(3): 199-204.

Baker, D.L., Dang, M.T., Ly, M.Y. and R. Diaz. (2010). “Perception of Barriers to
Immunization Among Parents of Hmong Origin in California.” American Journal of Public Health 100)5): 839-845.

Cobb, T.G. (2010). “Strategies for Providing Cultural Competent Health Care for Hmong
Americans.” Journal of Cultural Diversity 17(3): 79-83.

Fang, D.M., Lee, S., Stewart, S., Ly, M.Y. and M.S. Chen. (2010). “Factors Associated
with Pap Testing among Hmong Women.” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved.” 21: 839-

Foote, M. and J. Matloub. (2010). “The Usefulness of Health Care Databases in Wisconsin for
Identifying Hmong Patients with Cancer.” Wisconsin Medical Journal 109(4): 214-218.

Fjuii, D. and A.K. Vang. (2010). “Neuropsychology of Hmong Americans.” In The
neuropsychology of Asian Americans, edited  by Daryl Fujii, 71-88. New York: Taylor and Francis.

Franzen, L. and C. Smith. (2010). "Food System Access, Shopping Behavior, and Influences on Purchasing
Groceries in Adult Hmong Living in Minnesota." American Journal of Health Promotion 24(6): 396-410.

Goto, K., Vue, W.M., Xiong, T.  and C. Wolff. (2010). “Divergent Perspectives on Food, Culture,
and Health among Hmong Mothers with Middle School Children.” Food, Culture, and Society 13(2): 181-

Hatmaker G. et al. (2010). "Commentary: The Hmong and their Perceptions about Physical Disabilities: An Overview
and Review of Selected Literature." Hmong Studies Journal, 11:1-16.

Lee, H.Y. and S. Vang. (2010). “Barriers to Cancer Screening in Hmong Americans: The
Influence of Health Care Accessibility, Culture and Cancer Literacy.” Journal of Community Health 35: 302-

Lo, P. et al. (2010).  "Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase
Pap Test Screening ." Hmong Studies Journal 11: 1-29.

Nibbs, F. (2010). "A Hmong Birth and Authoritative Knowledge: A Case study of choice, control, and the reproductive
consequences of refugee status in American childbirth." Hmong Studies Journal, 11: 1-14.

Portis, A.J., Laliberte, M., Tatman, P.,  Moua, M., Culhane-Pera, K., Maalouf, N.M.
and K. Sakhaee. (2010). “High Prevalence of Gouty Arthritis Among the Hmong Population in
Minnesota.” Arthritis Care and Research 62(10): 1386-1391.

Schantz, S.L., Gardiner, J.C., Aguiar, A., Tang, X., Gasior, D.M., Sweeney, A.M., Peck, J.D., Gillard, D. and
Kostyniak, P.J. (2010). “Contaminant Profiles in Southeast Asian Immigrants Consuming Fish from Polluted Waters
in Northeastern Wisconsin.” Environmental Research 110: 33-39.

Schroepfer, T.A., Waltz, A.,  et al.. (2010). “Seeking to Bridge Two Cultures: The Wisconsin Hmong Cancer
Experience.” Journal of Cancer Education. Published Online: 19 March 2010.

Waheedduddin, S., Singh, J.A., Culhane-Pera, K.A. and E. Gertner. “Gout in the
Hmong in the United States.” (2010). JCR: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 16(6): 262-266.

Vang, K.M. (2010). Mental Health: Identifying Barriers to Hmong Students’ Use of Mental Health
Services. PhD Dissertation, California State University, Fresno.

Yang, R.C., Mills, P.K. and K. Nasseri. (2010). “Patterns of Mortality in California Hmong,
1988-2002.” Journal of Immigrant Minority Health 12: 754-760.

Xiong, G. (2010). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Hmong Refugees: A Client’s Self-rating of
Helpfulness, Psy.D. Dissertation, Alliant International University, Fresno.

Baker, D. (2009). Parental Perceptions of Barriers to Immunization among the Hmong Community in Central
California. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Boulden, W.T. (2009). “Gay Hmong: A Multifacted Clash of Cultures.” Journal of Gay and Lesbian
Social Services 21(2): 134-150.

Christopherson, T. (2009). Assessment of Risk Factors for Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
in Hmong Americans from Dunn County, Wisconsin. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Franzen, L. and C. Smith. (2009). "Differences in Stature, BMI, and Dietary Practices Between U.S. Born and Newly
Immigrated Hmong Children." Social Science and Medicine 69(3): 442-450.

Kagawa-Singer, M.,  Tanjasiri, S.P., Valdez, A., Yu, H. and M.A. Foo. (2009).  “Outcomes of a Breast Health Project
for Hmong Women and Men in California.” American Journal of  Public Health 99(S2): S467-S473.

Khang, L. (2009). Knowledge of the Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer Among Hmong Female College-
Aged Students. M.P.H. Thesis, California State University, Fresno.

Krueger, L. (2009). "Experiences of Hmong Patients on Hemodialysis and the Nurses Working with Them."
Nephrology Nursing Journal 36(4): 379-387.

Langford, J. (2009). “Gifts Intercepted: Biopolitics and Spirit Debt.” Cultural Anthropology 24(4): 681-711.

Neidich A; Mahanty HD; Bramstedt KA. (2009). "Exploring transplant opportunities in Hmong culture: a case report."
Progress In Transplantation 19(2): 188-91.

Perez, M. and C. Thao. (2009). "Understanding Barriers to Prevention of ntshav qab zib/nsthaav qaab zib: A Hmong
perspective." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 10: 1-23.

Rooney, B.L.,  Choudhary, R. and A. Bliss. (2009). “Social Determinants of Smoking Among Hmong
Americans Residing in Wisconsin.” Wisconsin Medical Journal 108(9): 439-46.

Stright, A.S., Herr, M.Y. and Carin Neitzel. (2009). “Maternal Scaffolding of
Children’s Problem Solving and Children’s Adjustment in Kindergarten: Hmong Families in the
United States.” Journal of Educational Psychology 101(1): 207-218.

Vang, C. (2009). The Relationship Among Acculturation, Cultural Adjustment Difficulties, and
Psychological Symptoms Among Hmong Americans. PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Vang, P. (2009). "Using Mammography Screening: Hmong Women’s Perceptions and Beliefs." Hmong Studies
Journal, Volume 10: 1-29.

Yang, A., Xiong, D., Vang, E. and M.D. Pharris. (2009). “Hmong American Women Living with Diabetes.” Journal of
Nursing Scholarship 41(2): 139-148.

Yang, A. (2009). “Coming Home to Nursing Education for a Hmong Student, Hmong Nurse, and
a Hmong Nurse Educator.” In Susan Dandridge Bosher and Margaret Dexheimer Pharris, (Editors),
Transforming Nursing Education: The Cultural Inclusive Environment. New York: Springer, pp. 123-

Baisch, M.J., Vang, P.C. and B.R. Peterman. (2008). “An Exploration of Hmong Women’s
Perspectives on Cancer.” Asian Nursing Research 2(2): 82-91.

Gerdner, L.A. (2008). "Translating Research Findings Into a Hmong American Children’s Book to Promote
Understanding of Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-21.

Burgess, D., Fu, S.S., Joseph, A.M., Hatsukami, D.K., Solomon, J. and M.V. Ryn. (2008). “Understanding Smoking
and Cessation among Hmong Smokers.” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 19: 442-451.

Clarkin, P.F. (2008). “Adiposity and Height of Adult Hmong Refugees: Relationship with War-Related Early
Malnutrition and Later Migration.” American Journal of Human Biology 20: 174-184.

Detjen, G.M. (2008). “Health and Acculturation of Hmong in the United States.” PhD Dissertation, The University of

Franzen L. and C. Smith. (2008). "Acculturation and environmental change impacts dietary habits among adult
Hmong." Appetite 20 Sept. 2008, 11 pages.

Liamputtong, P. (2008). “Traditional knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the health and well-being of
children amongst Hmong and Thai immigrants in Australia.” In P. Eddington and U.V. Mastolli, Eds. Health
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices. New York: Nova Biomedical Books, 149-164.

Lor, K. and K. Lovaj. (2008). “Considering Hmong Herbal Medication: Serving the Health
Needs of Wisconsin’s Hmong Population.” The Journal of the Pharmacy Society of Wisconsin.
July/August 2008: 35-38.

Oeltmann, J.E. et al. (2008). "Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Outbreak among US-bound Hmong Refugees,
Thailand, 2005." Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11): 1715-1721.

Rhodes, P.F.Y. (2008). Intimate Partner Violence among Hmong American Men and
Women. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Wong, C.; Mouanoutoua, V.; and M.J. Chen. (2008). “Engaging Community in the Quality of Hypertension Care
Project with Hmong Americans.” Journal of Cultural Diversity 15(1): 30-36.

Yang, R. and P.K. Mills. (2008). "Dietary and Lifestyle Practices of Hmong in California." Journal of Health Care for
the Poor and Underserved 19 (2008): 1258–1269.

Cha, K.C. (2007). Action Research: Development and Implementation of a Training Program to Address Health
Access and Cultural Competency for the Southeast Asian Population in the Central San Joaquin Valley of California.
PhD Dissertation, Alliant International University, Fresno.  

Conroy, P.W. (2007). “Hmong Culture and Visual Impairment: Strategies for Culturally
Sensitive Practices.” View Summer 2007 38(2): 55-64.

Culhane-Pera, K.A., Her, C. and B. Her. (2007). “‘We are out of balance here’: a Hmong Cultural Model of Diabetes.”
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.  9: 179-190.

Fu, S. et. al. (2007). Views on smoking cessation methods in ethnic minority communities: A qualitative investigation.
Preventive Medicine, Mar2007, Vol. 44 Issue 3, p235-240, 6p

Gerdner, L.A., Cha, D., Yang, D. and T. Tripp-Reimer. (2007). “The Circle of Life: End-of-Life Care and Death
Rituals for Hmong-American Elders.” Journal of Gerontological Nursing 33(5): 20-29.

Hickman, J.R. (2007). “Is it the Spirit or the Body?”: Syncretism of Health Beliefs among Hmong Immigrants to Alaska.
NAPA Bulletin, 27:176-195.

Homma, Y. and E. Saewyc. (2007). “The Emotional Well-Being of Asian-American Sexual Minority Youth in School.”
Journal of LGBT Health Research 3(1): 67-78.

Kim LP, Harrison GG, Kagawa-Singer M. (2007). “Perceptions of diet and physical activ­ity among California Hmong
adults and youths.” Prev Chronic Dis 2007;4(4).

Kornosky, J.L., Peck, J.D., Sweeney, A.M., Adelson, P.L., and S.L. Schantz. (2007). “Reproductive Characteristics of
Southeast Asian Immigrants Before and After Migration.” Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, Published Online 2
June 2007

Krueger, L. (2007). “Wisconsin Hmong Experiences with Hemodialysis.” M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Liamputtong, P. and D. Spitzer. (2007). “Double Identities: the lived Experience of Motherhood among Hmong
Immigrant Women in Australia. In Pranee Liamputtong, Ed. Reproduction, Childbearing and Motherhood: A Cross-
Cultural Perspective. New York: Nova Science Publishing.

Okunseri, C., Yang, M., Gonzalez, C., LeMay, W., and A.M. Iacopino. (2007). “Hmong Adults Self-Rated Oral Health:
A Pilot Study.” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, Published Online 2 June 2007.

Perez, M.A. and K. Cha. (2007). "Diabetes Knowledge, Beliefs, and Treatments in the Hmong Population: An
Exploratory Study."Hmong Studies Journal Vol 8, 2007

Stang, J., Kong, A., Story, M., Eisenberg, M.E. and D. Neumark-Sztainer. (2007). “Food and Weight-Related
Patterns and Behaviors of Hmong Adolescents.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107(6): 936-941.

Tanjasiri, S.P. et al. (2007). “Designing culturally and linguistically appropriate health interventions: The ‘life is
precious’ Hmong breast cancer study.” Health Education and Behavior 34 (1): 140-153.

van Calcar, S.C. et al.. (2007).“2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Hmong infants identified by
expanded newborn screen.” Wisconsin Medical Journal 106(1): 12-15.

Van Duyn MAS, McCrae T, Wingrove BK, Henderson KM, Boyd JK, Kagawa-Singer M, et al. (2007). “Adapting
evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity among African Americans, Hispanics, Hmong, and Native
Hawaiians: a social marketing approach.” Prev Chronic Dis 2007;4(4).

Vang, P.D. (2007). Southeast Asian Mental Health from the Perspective of the Bicultural Provider. PhD Dissertation,
University of Minnesota.

Vang, P. Zongrum, O., Sindhuphak, R., and N. Dusitsin. (2007). "Preliminary Study on Thalassemia Screening and
Genetic Counseling in Selective Hmong People in Saraburi Province, Thailand." Hmong Studies Journal Vol 8, 2007

Vang, S.V. (2007). Perception of Hypertension and Antihypertensive Medication Compliance
in the Elderly Hmong Population. M.S. Thesis, California State University, Fresno.

Vang, X.X. (2007). “Awareness of Hmong Religious Practices and Rituals in Regards to
Counseling Hmong Students.” MS Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. http://www.uwstout.

Viste, J. (2007). “Communicating (Birth Defects) Prevention Information to a Hmong Population in
Wisconsin: A Study of Cultural Relevance.” Substance Use and Misuse 42(4): 753-774.

Vue, H. and M. Reicks. (2007). “Individual and Environmental Influences on Intake of Calcium-rich Food and
Beverages by Young Hmong Adolescent Girls.” Journal of Nutrition Education Behavior 39(5): 264-272.

Xiong, M. (2007). Hmong Parents’ Attitudes, Perceptions of Disability, and Expectations of Children with Disabilities:
A Qualitative Study of Its Impact on Academic Performance. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Yang, P. (2007). Acculturation and Depression in the Hmong Community. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University,
Long Beach.

Adler, S.R. (2006). “Refugee Stress and Folk Belief: Hmong Sudden Deaths.” In Elizabeth Dixon Whitaker, Ed.
Health and Healing in Comparative Perspective. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Culhane-Pera, K.A. and M. Lee. (2006). "'Die Another Day': A qualitative analysis of Hmong experiences with kidney
stones." Hmong Studies Journal Vol 7, 2006

Clarkin, P.F. (2006). “Correlations between war-related experiences and growth among ethnic Lao and Hmong
refugees in the United States: a biocultural perspective.” AM J HUM BIOL 18 (2): 254-255 12 MAR-APR 2006

Devlin, H., M. Roberts, A. Okaya, and Y.M. Xiong (2006). “Our Lives Were Healthier Before: Focus Groups with
African American, American Indian, Hispanic/Latino, and Hmong People with Diabetes.” Health Promotion Practice 7
(1): 47-55.

Edinburgh, L., Saewyc, E., Thao, T. and C. Levitt. (2006).   “Sexual exploitation of very young Hmong girls.” Journal
of Adolescent Health 39(1): 111-118.

Gensheimer, L. (2006). "Learning from the experiences of Hmong mental health providers." Hmong Studies Journal,
Vol 7, 2006

Gerdner, L.A, Xiong, S.V., and D. Cha. (2006). “Chronic Confusion and Memory Impairment in Hmong Elders.”
Journal of Gerontological Nursing 32(3): 23-30.

Gerdner, L.A., Xiong X.X., and D. Yang (2006). “Working with Hmong American Families.” In G. Yeo and D.
Gallagher-Thompson (Eds). Ethnicity and the Dementias, 2nd Edition. Bristo:, PA: Taylor and Francis CRC Press,
pp. 209-230.

Kasemsup, R, Reicks, M (2006). “The relationship between maternal child-feeding practices and overweight in
Hmong preschool children.” ETHNIC DIS 16 (1): 187-193 WIN 2006

Pinzon-Perez, Helen. (2006). “Health Issues for the Hmong Population in the U.S.: Implications for Health
Educators.”  International Electronic Journal of Health Education 9:122-133.

Pérez, M.A, Moua, L.J., and H. Pinzon-Perez. (2006). "Food Preparation, Practices, and Safety In The Hmong
Community." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 7, 2006.

Samoylenko, E. (2006). Comparison of Health Beliefs among African American, Caucasian,
Hispanic, and Hmong Hemodialysis Patients Who Skip or Shorten Dialysis Treatments. M.S. Thesis,
California State University, Fresno.

Straka, RJ, Burkhardt, RT, Lang, NP, et al. (2006). “Discordance between slow acetylator phenotype and genotype
for N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT-2) in a Hmong population.” CLIN PHARMACOL THER 79 (2): P72-P72 Suppl. S FEB

Straka, R.J., Burkhardt, R.T., Lang N.P., Vang, T., Hadsall, K.Z., and Tsai, M.Y. (2006). “Verified Predominance of
Slow Acetylator Phenotype N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) in a Hmong Population Residing in Minnesota.”
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 27: 299-304.

Thao, Debbie Dao. (2006). Gender and acculturation as predictors of attitudes toward seeking professional
psychological help among the Hmong community. Psy.D. Dissertation, Alliant International University, Fresno.

Vang, T. and H. Pinzon-Perez. (2006). "Knowledge of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Among Hmong Populations In
Central California." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 7, 2006.

Yang, J. (2006). The Relationship Between Contextual Factors of Psychological Distress with Emotional Eating and
Body Weight in Hmong and Hmong American College Populations, PhD Dissertation, Alliant International University,

Yang, Richard C., Mills, Paul K. and Jennifer L Dodge. (2006). "Cancer Screening, Reproductive History,
Socioeconomic Status, and Anticipated Cancer-related Behavior among Hmong Adults." Asian Pacific Journal of
Cancer Prevention 7: 79-85.

Butler, Lesley M., Paul K Mills, Richard C Yang, Moon S Chen, Jr. (2005). "Hepatitis B Knowledge and Vaccination
Levels in California Hmong Youth: Implications for Liver Cancer Prevention Strategies." Asian Pacific Journal of
Cancer Prevention, 6(3): 401-3.

Clarkin, Patrick F. (2005). Methodological issues in the anthropometric assessment of Hmong children in the United
States. American Journal of Human Biology 17(6): 787-795.

Culhane-Pera KA, Peterson KA, Crain AL, et al. (2005). Group visits for Hmong adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus:
A pre-post analysis JOURNAL OF HEALTH CARE FOR THE POOR AND UNDERSERVED 16 (2): 315-327 MAY 2005

Chang PG, Vue M, Lee L, et al. (2005). "Anthropometrics, dietary habits, and feelings about health among
Wisconsin Hmong-Americans."  FASEB JOURNAL 19 (5): A1021-A1022 Part 2 Suppl. S MAR 7 2005

Delang, Claudio O. “The market for medicinal plants in SAPA and Hanoi, Vietnam.”
Economic Botany 59 (4): 377-385 WIN 2005

Geller, R. J., Alsop, J. A. (2005). ”Suicidal ingestions of metal polish cleaner in the Hmong community.” Clinical
Toxicology 43 (6): 744-745 2005

Gensheimer, Linda C.. (2005). Hmong Mental Health Providers: A Hermeneutic Approach to Understanding Their
Experience. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Gerdner, L, Tripp-Reimer, T, Yang, D (2005). ”Perception and care of elders with dementia in the Hmong American
community.”INT PSYCHOGERIATR 17: 163-164 Suppl. 2 2005

Harrison, Gail G., Marjorie Kagawa-Singer, Susan B. Foerster, Henry Lee, Loan Pham Kim, Uyen Nguyen, Allyn
Fernandez-Ami, Valerie Quinn and Dileep G. Bal. (2005). "Seizing the moment: California's opportunity to prevent
nutrition-related health disparities in low-income Asian American populations." Cancer 104(S12): 2962-2968.

Deborah Helsel, Marilyn Mochel and Robert Bauer. (2005). “Chronic Illness and Hmong Shamans.” Journal of
Transcultural Nursing, 16(2)(April 2005):150-154.

McCarty, Daniel J. (2005). "Glucose Intolerance in Wisconsin's Hmong Population." Wisconsin Medical Journal 104
(5): 13-14.

Mills, Paul K., Richard C. Yang, and Deborah Riordan. (2005). "Cancer Incidence in the Hmong in California, 1988-
2000." Cancer Supplement 104(12): 2969-2974.

Pinzon-Perez, Helda, Moua, Neng and Miguel A. Perez. (2005). “Understanding Satisfaction with Shamanic Practices
among the Hmong in Rural California.” The International Electronic Journal of Health Education, 8:18-23.

Sperstad, Rita A. and Joan Stehle Werner. (2005). "Coming to the Cultural "In-Between": Nursing Insights From a
Hmong Birth Case Study." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 34(6): 682-688.

Su, Jenny, Richard M. Lee, and Shary Vang. (2005). “Intergenerational Family Conflict and Coping Among Hmong-
American College Students.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 52(4): 482-489.

Vang, L.N. (2005). Sweet blood: Hmong decision making and experiences in living with diabetes. M.A. Thesis,
California State University, Long Beach.

Vang E, Masai L, Trotter A, et al. Culturally appropriate nutrition education for the California Hmong population  
FASEB JOURNAL 19 (5): A1022-A1022 Part 2 Suppl. S MAR 7 2005

Vang, T. (2005). Hmong Knowledge of Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. MPH Thesis, California State University, Fresno.

Vue H, Reicks M (2005). "Individual and environmental influences on intake of calcium rich foods by Hmong
preadolescent girls."  FASEB JOURNAL 19 (5): A977-A977 Part 2 Suppl. S MAR 7 2005

Richard C. Yang, Paul K. Mills and Deborah G. Riordan. (2005). "Gastric Adenocarcinoma among Hmong in
California, USA, 1988-2000." Gastric Cancer 8(2)(June 2005): 117-123.

Wang, J.A. (2005). “The Changing Health Care Behaviour of the Hmong Refugee Population in Sydney.”
Geographical Research 43(4): 417-428.  

E.W. Wiewel (Et al). (2005). ``Injection Prevalence and Risks Among Male Ethnic Minority Drug Users in Northern
Thailand.” AIDS Care, 17(1)(January 2005): 102-110.

Clarkin, Patrick Francis. (2004). The fetal origins hypothesis and the Hmong diaspora: Effects of warfare, early
malnutrition, and later modernization on adult health. PhD Dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton.

Helsel, Deborah G., Mochel, Marilyn, and Robert Bauer. (2004). “Shamans in a Hmong American Community.”
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Vang, Lu with Phua Xiong. (2003). "Influence of Conversion to Christianity on a Hmong Woman's Decision about
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