Hmong Birth Customs and Parenting Practices

Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD

Detzner, D.F. Senyurekli, A.R., Yang, P.D. and Khadija S. Sheikh. (2009). “Family
Strengths of Hmong and Somali Refugees in the United States.” In Douglas Charles Abbott et. al,
(editors), Strengths and Challenges of New Immigrant Families: Implications for Research,
Education, Policy, and Service. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, pp. 135-154.

Lee, R.M., Jung, K.R., Su, J.C., Tran, A. and N.F. Bahrassa. (2009).
“The Family Life and Adjustment of Hmong American Sons and Daughters.” Sex Roles 60: 549-558.

Stright, A.S., Herr, M.Y. and Carin Neitzel. (2009). “Maternal Scaffolding of
Children’s Problem Solving and Children’s Adjustment in Kindergarten: Hmong Families in the
United States.” Journal of Educational Psychology 101(1): 207-218.

Lee, J.K. and K. Green. (2008). "Hmong Parental Involvement and Support: A Comparison Between Families of High
and Low Achieving High School Seniors." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-27.

Xiong, Z.B., A. Tuicomepee and K.B. Rettig. (2008). "Adolescents’ Problem Behaviors and Parent-Adolescent
Conflicts in Hmong Immigrant Families." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-21.

Xiong, Z. (2008). Hmong Grandparents raising Grandchildren: An Exploratory Study. M.S.W. Thesis, California
State University, Fresno.

Brown, B.B., Bakken, J.P., Nguyen, J., Von Bank, H.G. (2007). “Sharing Information about Peer Relations: Parent
and Adolescent Opinions and Behaviors in Hmong and African American Families.” New Directions for Child and
Adolescent Development 116: 67-82.

Kornosky, J.L., Peck, J.D., Sweeney, A.M., Adelson, P.L., and S.L. Schantz. (2007). “Reproductive Characteristics
of Southeast Asian Immigrants Before and After Migration.” Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, Published Online 2
June 2007.

Liamputtong, P. (2007). “Double Identities: The Lived Experience of Motherhood among Hmong Immigrant Women
in Australia.” In P. Liamputtong, Editor, Reproduction, Childbearing and Motherhood: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.
New York: Nova Science Pub.

Ly, M. (2006). How Hmong Adolescents Experience Parental Involvement, PhD Dissertation, Capella University.

Xiong, Z.B., Detzner, D.F., Keuster, Z.H., Eliason, P.A., and R. Allen. (2006). "Developing Culturally Sensitive Parent
Education Programs for Immigrant Families: The Helping Youth Succeed Curriculum." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 7

Xiong, Zha Blong, Tuicomepee, Arunya and Laura LaBlanc. (2006). “Hmong Immigrants' Perceptions of
Family Secrets and Recipients of Disclosure.” Families in Society 87(2):  231-239.

Xiong, Z.B., Rettig, K.D., & A. Tuicomepee. (2006). “Perceived parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent
adjustments in Hmong immigrant families in the United States.” In D. M. Devore (Ed.). Parent-child relations: New
research. NOVA Science Publishers.

Supple, Andrew J. and Stephen A. Small. (2006). “The Influence of Parental Support, Knowledge, and
Authoritative Parenting on Hmong and European American Adolescent Development.”  Journal of
Family Issues 27(9): 1214-1232.

Sperstad, Rita A. and Joan Stehle Werner. (2005). "Coming to the Cultural "In-Between": Nursing Insights From a
Hmong Birth Case Study." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 34(6): 682-688.

Xiong, D.D. (2005). The Relationship between Parental and Adolescent Acculturation and Hmong Adolescent
Psychological Well-Being, PhD Dissertation, Alliant International University, San Diego.

Xiong, Z.B. and D.F. Detzner. (2005). “Southeast Asian Fathers’ Experiences with Adolescents: Challenges and
Change.” Hmong Studies Journal, 2005, 6: 1-23.

Gwendolyn F. Foss, Andjukenda W. Chantal and Simone Hendrickson. (2004). “Maternal Depression and Anxiety
and Infant Development: A Comparison of Foreign-Born and Native-American Mothers.” Public Health Nursing 21(3):

Liamputtong, Pranee Rice. (2004). “Being a Woman: The Social Construction of Menstruation Among Hmong
Women in Australia.” In The Hmong of Australia: Culture and Diaspora. Eds. Nicholas Tapp and Gary Yia Lee.
Canberra, Australia: Pandanus Books, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National
University, 153-174.

Xiong, Z.B., Detzner, D.F. and M.J. Cleveland. (2004). “Southeast Asian Adolescents’ Perceptions of Immigrant
Parenting Practices.” Hmong Studies Journal 5:1-20.

Liamputtong, Pranee. (2003). “Abortion-It is for Some Women Only! Hmong Women’s Perceptions of Abortion.”
Health Care for Women International 24: 230-241.

Kundstadter, Peter. (2003). "Social, Cultural, and Ethical Aspects of Controlling Fertility in the Hmong Community."
In Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case Studies of Hmong Families and Western Providers. Editors: Culhane-
Pera, K.A., et al. pp. 80-87.

Kathleen A. Culhane-Pera; Elanah D. Naftali; Cindy Jacobson and Zha Blong Xiong (2002). “Cultural Feeding
Practices and Child-Raising Philosophy Contribute to Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Refugee Hmong Children.” Ethnicity
and Disease 12 (Spring 2002): 199-205.

Helsel, Deborah G. and Marilyn Mochel. (2002). “Afterbirths in the Afterlife: Cultural Meaning of Placental Disposal
in a Hmong American community.” Journal of Transcultural Nursing 13(4): 282-286.

Liamputtong, Pranee. (2002). “Childrearing Practices and Child Health Among the Hmong in Australia: Implications
for Health Services.” International Journal of Health Services 32(4): 817-836.

Liamputtong, Pranee. (2002). “Infant Feeding Practices: The Case of Hmong Women in Australia.” Health Care for
Women International 23(1): 33-48.

Xiong, S. (2002). Hmong Family Processes and Their Impact on Hmong Adolescents’
Delinquent Behaviors: A Correlational Study. M.S. Thesis. University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Yang, Kee. (2002). Hmong Parents’ Perception on the Hmong Parenting Practices. M.A. Thesis, California State
University, Stanislaus.

Foss, Gwendolyn F. (2001). “Maternal Sensitivity, Posttraumatic Stress, and Acculturation in Vietnamese and
Hmong Mothers – Are Depression and Anxiety More Prevalent in Less Acculturated Mothers? How Should this
Influence the Nursing Care We Offer?” MCN, the American Journal of Maternal Nursing 26(5): 257-263.

Levenick, M. (2001). “Hmong and Prenatal Care.” Journal of Cultural Diversity 8(1): 26-29.

Spring, M.A. (2001). Reproductive Health and Fertility of Hmong Immigrants in Minnesota. PhD Dissertation,
University of Minnesota.

Bondioli, Christopher A. (2000). Hmong Parent Education and Involvement and Its Impact on Children: A
Correlational Study. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Rice, P.L. (2000). “Baby, souls, name and health: traditional customs for a newborn infant among the Hmong in
Melbourne.” Early Human Development. 57(3): 189-203.

Rice, P.L. (2000). “Death in birth: The cultural construction of stillbirth, neonatal death, and maternal death among
Hmong women in Australia.” Omega-Journal of Death and Dying. 41(1): 39-57.

Rice, P.L. (2000). Hmong Women and Reproduction. Westport, CT: Bergin and Harvey.

Rice, P.L. (2000). “Nyo dua hli - 30 days confinement: traditions and changed childbearing beliefs and practices
among Hmong women in Australia.” Midwifery. 16(1): 22-34.

Xiong, Zha Blong (2000). Hmong American parent-adolescent problem-solving interactions: An analytic induction
analysis, PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota.

Rice, P.L. (1999). “When the baby falls!: The cultural construction of miscarriage among Hmong women in
Australia.” Women and Health. 30(1): 85-103.

Wathum-Ocama, John Collins (1999). Attitudes of parents of Hmong deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) students: An
ethnographic study, PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota.

Ben-David, Amith; Good, Ila Jasani. (1998). "Ethiopians and the Hmongs: A comparative study in cultural narrative
from a family therapy perspective." Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 9(1), 31-45.

Rice, PL., and Naksook, C. (1998). “The experience of pregnancy, labour and birth of Thai women in Australia.”
Midwifery. 14(2): 74-84.

Vang, Chinseng Value. (1998). The effect of parenting classes on Hmong parents' parenting styles and potential for
abuse. M.S.W. thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.

Vang, Ka. (1998). The relationship between cultural retention among selected Hmong parents and the academic
achievement of their children. Ed.D. dissertation, University of San Francisco.

Vang, Tou K. (1998). Hmong parents' attitude and perception toward Hmong juvenile delinquency in America. M.S.
thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Yang, Sou Vanh. (1998). The impact of the home environment on Hmong children's academic performance in the
education system. M.S.W. thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.

Getahun, Linde Joveda. (1997). Women in cultural transition: Voices of Hmong mothers in an urban school. Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Hang, MayKao Yangblongsua. (1997) "Growing Up Hmong American: Truancy Policy and Girls." Hmong Studies
Journal Vol. 1 No. 2.

Howard, Katsuyo. (1997). Hmong families. In Understanding cultural parenting values, traditions and practices.
Bavolek, Stephen J. (Ed.), (pp. ). Park City, Utah: Family Development Resources.

Wolff, Ada Mercedes (1997). An outcome evaluation of the effects of a parent education program for Hmong
parents (refugees), MS dissertation. California State University – Fresno.

Carroll, Susanne Dennington (1996). Resiliency and the Hmong child growing up in Fresno: An ethnographic
narrative with drawings, PsyD dissertation. California School of Professional Psychology – Fresno.

Detzner, Daniel F. (1996). No Place Without a Home: Southeast Asian Grandparents in Refugee Families.
Generations 20(1): 45-48.

Duong Tran, Quang, Lee, Serge & Khoi, Sokley. (1996). Ethnic and gender differences in parental expectations
and life stress. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 13(6):515-526.

Gjerdingen, D.K., Ireland, M., & Chaloner, K.M. (1996). Growth of Hmong children. Archives of Pediatrics and
Adolescent Medicine, 150(12), 1295-1298.

Howard, Katsuyo Kunugi (1996). Hmong Parenting Practices In Transition: A Participatory Study, EDD dissertation.
University of San Francisco.

Pieper, Jean Ann. (1996). Infant feeding practices of the Hmong participating in the WIC program in Stevens Point .
M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.

Tuttle, Cynthia Reeves; Dewey, Kathryn G. (1996). Potential cost savings for Medi-Cal, AFDC, food stamps, and
WIC programs associated with increasing breast-feeding among low-income Hmong women in California. Journal of
the American Dietetic Association.

Yang, Nou. (1996). Hmong parents' views on American education and parent/teacher conferences. M.S. thesis,
University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Tuttle, Cynthia Reeves; Dewey, Kathryn G. (1995). Impact of a breastfeeding promotion program for Hmong women
at selected WIC sites in northern California. Journal of Nutrition Education. 27(2): 69+.

Wu, Christine (1995). The Efficacy Of A Behavioral Technique In The Treatment Of Noncompliance With An Asian
Child And His Parent, PSYD dissertation. California School of Professional Psychology – Fresno.

Foley, S. (1994). Parental Care Practices of the Hmong Refugees. Master’s Thesis, California State University,

Rice, P.L. (1994). "When I had my Baby Here!" In Rice, P.L., (ed.) Asian Mothers, Australian Birth - Pregnancy,
Childbirth, and Childrearing: The Asian Experience in an English Speaking Country. Melbourne: Ausmed
Publication. Reprinted at website. 15 p.

Rice, P.L., Ly, B. and Lumley, J. (1994). “Childbirth and Soul Loss: The Case of a Hmong Woman.” The Medical
Journal of Australia 160 (2 May 1994): 577-578.

Rice, P.L, Ly, B., and Lumley, J. (1994). "Soul Loss Following a Caesarean Operation." Medical Journal of Australia,
160, 577-578. Reprinted at website. 5 p.

Vang, M.M. (1994). Hmong Mothers and Daughters: Cultural Adjustment and Conflict. Master’s Thesis, California
State University, Stanislaus.

Davis, E. (1993). Effective Hmong Parent Involvement Program. Master’s Thesis, Hamline University.

Friesen, P.M. (1993). Hmong Infant Feeding Practices: A Mini Ethnonursing Study. Master’s Thesis, College of St.
Catherines, St. Paul, MN.

Helsel, Deborah Gail (1993). ‘Here There Is Much More And Much Less’: Hmong-American Families, Culture And
Childbearing In The ‘Land Of The Giants’, PhD dissertation. University of California - San Francisco.

Holbrook, D. (1993). The Relationship of Parental Expectations and Acculturation on Hmong Elementary Student’s
Achievement. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico.

Tuttle, Cynthia Reeves (1993). Infant Feeding Among Southeast Asian Immigrants In Northern California (Hmong,
Vietnamese), PhD dissertation. University of California, Davis.

Faller, H.S. (1992). “Hmong Women: Characteristics and Birth Outcomes.” Birth 19 (September 1992): 144-148.

Helsel, D.; D.B. Petitti and P. Kundstadter. (1992). “Pregnancy Among the Hmong: Birthweight, Age and Parity.” 82:

Lengyel, K.A. (1992). How do Hmong Women Perceive Their Hospital Stay During Labor, Birth, and Postpartum?
Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Mannel, P.L. (1992). Factors the Influence or Hinder Hmong Parents in Obtaining Exams, Immunizations, and Blood
Amenia Screenings for Their Children Ages Birth to Five Years of Age. Master’s Thesis, California State University,

Meyer C. (1992). Hmong Children and Their Families: Consideration of Cultural Influences in Assessment. American
Journal of Occupational Therapy 46:737-744.

Mouanoutoua, V.L. (1992). Acculturation and Risk for Child Maltreatment in the Hmong Community. PhD
Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.

Himes, H.K. (1991). Traditional Parenting Practices and Attitudes of the Hmong: A Foundation for a Culturally
Sensitive Parenting Program. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Fresno.

Morrow, R.D. (1991). “The Challenge of Southeast Asian Parental Involvement.” Principal 70(3): 20-22.

Weinstein-Shr, G. and N.Z. Henkin (1991). “Continuity and Change: Intergenerational Relations in Southeast Asian
Refugee Families.” Marriage and Family Review 16 (Summer 1991): 351-367.

Vang, V. (1991). Identifying the Needs of Hmong Parents Experiencing Cultural Conflicts in American Society.
Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Yang, D. (1991). “Generational Conflict Among the Hmong in the United States.” Hmong Forum 2 (1991): 35-38.

Elkins, J.L. (1990). The Factors Associated With the Initial Infant Feeding Choice Among Hmong Mothers in
Northern California. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico, 1990.

Hughes, M.K. (1990). Hmong Concepts of Parenthood and Family in the United States. Master’s Thesis,
Washington State University.

Laurent, A.E. (1990). Registered Maternity Nurses’ Knowledge of Traditional Hmong Cultural Childbirth Practice.
Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Podhisita, C., P. Kunstadter, and S.L. Kunstadter. (1990). “Evidence for Early Fertility Transition Among the Hmong
in Northern Thailand.” Journal of Population and Social Studies. 2: 137-155.

Rolnick, S. (1990). “Reducing Teenage Childbearing in the Hmong Community, First Year Results.” Vietnam
Generation 2, No. 3: 53-61.

Rorabaugh, M.L. (1990). Catch-Up Growth in Young Hmong Refugee Children. PhD Dissertation. Johns Hopkins

Trueba, H.T., Jacobs, L. and E. Kirton. (1990). Cultural Conflict and Adaptation: The Case of Hmong Children in
American Society. New York: Falmer Press, 1990.

Vang, S.M. (1990). The Effects of Hmong Family Responsibilities on the Level of Performance of Hmong Students in
the Vocational Program at the St. Paul Technical College, St. Paul, Minnesota. Master’s Thesis, University of
Wisconsin – Stout.

Chongvatana, N. and K. Wongboonsin. (1989). Family Planning Programs and Contraceptive Practice in Khao I
Dang and Ban Vinai Refugee Camps: Results of the 1988 Survey. IPS Publication, no. 164/89. Bangkok: Institute of
Population Studies, Chulalongkorn University.

Muret-Wagstaff, S. and S.G. Moore. (1989). “The Hmong in America: Infant Behavior and Child Rearing Practices.”
In The Cultural Context of Literacy: Biology, Culture, and Infant Development.” Ed. J.K. Nugent, B.M. Lester, and T.
B. Brazelton, 319-339. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Cumming, B.J. (1988). The Development of Attachment in Two Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Infants and
their Mothers: Hmong Refugees and Caucasian-American. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Hirayama, K.K. and H. Hirayama. (1988). “Stress, Social Supports and Adaptational Patterns in Hmong Refugee
Families.” Amerasia Journal 14 (Winter 1988): 93-108.

Vangay, J.V.N. (1988). Hmong Parents’ Cultural Attitudes and the Sex-Ratio Imbalance of Hmong Merced High
School Graduates.” Master’s Thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.

Benson, V.E. (1987). “Care-Giving and Care-Seeking Practices Used by Hmong Refugee Parents on Their Children
During Illness.” M.A. Thesis, University of California, San Francisco.

Davies, K. (1987). “A Comparison of Growth Curves of Hmong Children to Growth Curves of American Children.” M.
A. Thesis, California State University, Fresno.

Erickson, D.; I. Swenson and E. Ehlinger.(1987). “Maternal and Infant Outcomes Among Caucasians and Hmong
Refugees.” Human Biology 59 (Oct. 1987): 799-808.

Lee, P.A. (1986). “Health Beliefs of Pregnant and Postpartum Hmong Women.” Western Journal of Nursing
Research 8 (February 1986): 83-93.

Morrow, K. (1986). “Transcultural Midwifery: Adapting to Hmong Birthing Customs in California.” Journal of Nurse-
Midwifery 31 (November-December 1986): 285-288.

Oberg, C.N., Muret-Wagstaff, S., Moore, S.G., and B. Cumming (1986). “A Cross-Cultural Assessment of Maternal-
Child Interaction: Links to Health and Development.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T.
Downing and A.S. Deinard, 399-416.

Rumbaut, R.G. and J.R. Weeks. (1986). “Fertility and Adaptation: Indochinese Refugees in the United States.”
International Migration Review 20 (Summer 1986): 428-65.

Faller, H.S. (1985). “Perinatal Needs of Immigrant Hmong Women: Surveys of Women and Health Care Providers.”
Public Health Reports 100 (May-June 1985): 340-43.

La Du, E.B. (1985). “Childbirth Care for Hmong Families.” MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing 10
(November-December 1985): 382-85.

Richman, D. and S. Dixon. (1985). “Comparative Study of Cambodian, Hmong, and Caucasian Infant and Maternal
Perinatal Profiles.” Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 30 (November-December 1985): 313-319.

Nyce, J.M. and W.H. Hollinshead. (1984). “Southeast Asian Refugees of Rhode Island: Reproductive Beliefs and
Practices Among the Hmong.” Rhode Island Medical Journal 67 (August 1984): 361-66.

Potter, Gayle S., and Alice Whire (1982). Traditional Hmong Birth Customs: A Historical Study. In The Hmong in the
West: Observations and Reports. Bruce T. Downing and Douglas P. Olney, eds., pp. 48-62. Minneapolis: Center for
Urban and Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota.