Hmong Cultural Values, Customs and Acculturation in the West

Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD

Brucato, N. et al. (2012). "The Hmong Diaspora: Preserved South-East Asian  genetic ancestry in French Guianese
Asians." Comptes Rendus Biologies 335 (10-11):698-707.


Her, V. and M. Louise Buley-Meissner, Editors. (2012). Hmong and American: From Refugees to Citizens. Saint
Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press.

Lo, A. (2012). "Writing Citizenship: Flexible Forms of Belonging in Kao Kalia Yang’s The Late Homecomer." Hmong
Studies Journal, 12: 1-15.

Burt, S.M. (2010). The Hmong Language in Wisconsin: Language Shift and Pragmatic Change.
Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.

Cha, Y.P. (2010). An Introduction to Hmong Culture. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company.

Tapp, N. (2010). The Impossibility of Self: An Essay on the Hmong Diaspora. Comparative
Anthropological Studies in Society, Cosmology and Politics, Volume 6. Berlin: Lit Verlag.

Lee, G.Y. and N. Tapp. (2010). Culture and Customs of the Hmong. Santa Barbara, CA:
Greenwood.

Thao, P.N. (2010). Proprietors without a Spiritual Pillar: The Search for Revitalization among Hmong
in the Midwestern United States. PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Burt, S. (2009). “Naming, Renaming and Self-Naming Among Hmong Americans.” Names: A Journal of Onomastics
57(4): 236-245.

Hadjiyanni, T. (2009). “Sacred Places: Culturally Sensitive Housing Designs for Hmong and
Somali Refugees.” Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences 101(1): 30-35.

Hadjiyanni, T. (2009). “Aesthetics in displacement – Hmong, Somali and Mexican home-making practices in
Minnesota.” International Journal of Consumer Studies 33(5): 541-549.

Lee, P. (2009). Racial Assimilation and Popular Culture: Hmong Youth (Sub)cultures and the
Persistance of the Color Line. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Lee, S. (2009). "Searching for the Hmong People’s Ethnic Homeland and Multiple Dimensions of Transnational
Longing: From the Viewpoint of the Hmong in Laos." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-18.

Heu, M. (2008). Challenges of Volunteerism within a Cultural Community: Case Study of Young
Hmong Adults in Kitchener-Waterloo. M.S.W. Thesis, Wilfrid Laurier University (Canada).

Lemoine, J. (2008). "To Tell the Truth." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-29.

Schein, L. (2008). “Neoliberalism and Hmong/Miao Transnational Media Ventures.” In Li Zhang and Aihwa Ong, Eds.
Privatizing China: Socialism from Afar. Ithaca:Cornell University Press, 103-119.

Watt, H. (2008). "The Power of the Spoken Word in Defining Religion and Thought: A Case Study." Hmong Studies
Journal, Volume 9: 1-25.

Yang, K. (2007). "An Assessment of the Hmong American New Year and Its Implications for Hmong-American
Culture." Hmong Studies Journal Vol 8, 2007

Moua, T.T.. (2007). Change and Choice: Hmongs’ Identification with a Homeland. PsyD Dissertation, Alliant
International University, Fresno.

Lee, G.Y. (2006). "Dreaming Across the Oceans: Globalization and Cultural Reinvention in the Hmong Diaspora."
Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 7, 2006.

Thao, Yer J. (2006). The Mong Oral Tradition: Cultural Memory in the Absence of Written Language. Jefferson,
North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Incorporated Publishers.

Chiu, Jeannie. (2004). "'I Salute the Spirit of My Communities': Autoethnographic Innovations in Hmong American
Literature." College Literature 31(3) Summer 2004: 43-69.

Julian, Roberta. (2004). “Living Locally, Dreaming Globally: Transnational Cultural Imaginings and Practices in the
Hmong Diaspora.” In The Hmong of Australia: Culture and Diaspora. Eds. Nicholas Tapp and Gary Yia Lee.
Canberra, Australia: Pandanus Books, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National
University, 25-58.

Ranard, Donald A. (Editor). (2004). The Hmong: An Introduction to their History and Culture. Washington D.C.:
Center for Applied Linguistics.

Schein, Louisa. (2004). "Homeland Beauty: Transnational Longing and Hmong American Video." The Journal of
Asian Studies 63(2): 433-463.

Schein, Louisa (2004). "Hmong/Miao Transnationality: Identity Beyond Culture." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J., Culas, C.,
and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 273-294.

Mote, Sue Murphy. (2004). Hmong and American: Stories of Transition to a Strange Land. Jefferson, North Carolina:
McFarland and Company, Publishers.

Chang, John Paokong and Jerry Rosiek. (2003). “Anti-Colonialist Antinomies in a Biology Lesson: A Case Study of
Cultural Conflict in a Science Classroom.” Curriculum Inquiry 33 (3), 251-290.

Moua, Teng. (2003). The Hmong Culture: Kinship, Marriage and Family Systems. M.S. Thesis, University of
Wisconsin-Stout.

Sandage, Steven J., Hill, Peter C., and Henry C. Vang. (2003). “Toward a Multicultural Positive Psychology:
Indigenous Forgiveness and Hmong Culture.” The Counseling Psychologist 31(5): 564-592.

Yang, Tou T. (2003). "Hmong of Germany: Preliminary Report on the Resettlement of Lao Hmong Refugees in
Germany." Hmong Studies Journal, 4:1-14

Lemoine, Jacques. (2002). “Hmong Identity: An Asset for Success in the West.” Speech Presented at the Hmong
National Conference, Milwaukee, WI, April 2002, 13 pages including references.

Omoto, Susan. (2002). Hmong Milestones in America: Citizens in a New World. Evanston, IL: John Gordon Burke
Publishers.

Tapp, Nicholas. (2002). “Cultural Accommodations in Southwest China: The ‘Han Miao’ and Problems in the
Ethnography of the Hmong.” Asian Folklore Studies 61: 77-104.

Yang, Cziasarh Neng. (2002). Cultural capital : old Hmong culture in modern times. Ed.D. Dissertation, University of
Saint Thomas, Saint Paul, MN.

Lo, F. (2001). The Promised Land: Socioeconomic Reality of the Hmong in Urban America. Bristol, IN: Wyndham Hill
Press.

Smith, N.J. (2001). Ethnicity, reciprocity, reputation and punishment: An ethnoexperimental study of cooperation
among the Chaldeans and Hmong of Detroit (Michigan). Phd Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.

Cha, D. (2000). Hmong American Concepts of Health, Healing, and Illness and Their Experience with Conventional
Medicine. PhD Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder.

Lo, Fungchatou (2000). The Promised Land: Socioeconomic adjustment of the Hmong in Milwaukee, 1976-2000,
PhD dissertation. The University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee.

Rice, P.L. (2000). Hmong Women and Reproduction. Westport, CT: Bergin and Harvey.

Tapp, Nicholas. (2000). “Ritual Relations and Identity: Hmong and Others.” In Civility and Savagery: Social Identity in
Tai States. A. Turton, Ed. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 84-103.

Westby, Joel C. (2000). The Hmong and Acculturation. MSW Thesis, University of Saint Thomas (St. Paul, MN).

Lee, Pao (1999). Language maintenance and language shift among second-generation Hmong teenagers, EdD
dissertation. University of San Francisco.

Mason-Chagil (1999). Hmong parents' perspectives on the role of schools in raising and educating children in the
United States, PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota.

Rice, P.L. (1999). “When the baby falls!: The cultural construction of miscarriage among Hmong women in
Australia.” Women and Health. 30(1): 85-103.

Thao, Paoze. (1999). Mong Education at the crossroads. Lanham. Md.: University Press of America.

Wathum-Ocama, John Collins (1999). Attitudes of parents of Hmong deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) students: An
ethnographic study, PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota.

Cooper, Robert (Editor) (1998). The Hmong: A guide to traditional lifestyles . Singapore: Times Editions.

Hein, J. (1998). “The Hmong Cultural Repertoire: Explaining Cultural Variation Within an Ethnic Group.” Hmong
Studies Journal 2(2): 1-11.

Her, Mymee (Mee). (1998). A construct validity study of the values questionnaire using two divergent groups:
Hmong and white Americans. Ph.D. dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.

The Hmong people: Stories and culture. (1998). Created by the Hmong students at the Saturn Riverfront School.
Saint Paul, MN: The School.

Kang, Ko Bruce. (1998). Acculturation as a predictor of attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help in
the Hmong community. Ph.D. dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.

Timm, J.T., Chiang, B., and B.D. Finn. (1998). “Acculturation in the Cognitive Style of Laotian Hmong Students in the
United States.” Equity and Excellence in Education 31(1): 29-35.

Warner, M.E. and M. Mochel. (1998). “The Hmong and Health Care in Merced, California.” Hmong Studies Journal 2
(2): 1-21. Vang, Ka. (1998). The relationship between cultural retention among selected Hmong parents and the
academic achievement of their children. Ed.D. dissertation, University of San Francisco.

Vang, See J. (1998). Hmong perception and behaviors regarding shamanic practice and western medicine. M.S.
thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Xiong, Michael Moua. (1998). Hmong students' attitude toward family life and education. M.S. thesis, University of
Wisconsin, Stout.

Yang, Sou Vanh. (1998). The impact of the home environment on Hmong children's academic performance in the
education system. M.S.W. thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.

Bosher, S. (1997). “Language and cultural identity: A study of Hmong students at the postsecondary level.” TESOL
QUARTERLY. 31(3): 593-603.

Fang, Chao (1997). Intergenerational values differences between younger and older Hmong in the United States,
PhD dissertation. United State International University.

Getahun, Linde Joveda. (1997). Women in cultural transition: Voices of Hmong mothers in an urban school. Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Hang, MayKao Yangblongsua. (1997) "Growing Up Hmong American: Truancy Policy and Girls." Hmong Studies
Journal Vol. 1 No. 2.

Howard, Katsuyo. (1997). Hmong families. In Understanding cultural parenting values, traditions and practices.
Bavolek, Stephen J. (Ed.), (pp. ). Park City, Utah: Family Development Resources.

Howard, Katsuyo Kunugi (1996). Hmong Parenting Practices In Transition: A Participatory Study, EDD dissertation.
University of San Francisco.

Lee, Gary Yia. (1996) "Cultural Identity In Post-Modern Society: Reflections on What is a Hmong?"Hmong Studies
Journal Vol. 1 No. 1.

Reavill, Lisa K. (1996). Promise and paradox: the experience of Hmong women in college. Ph.D. dissertation,
University of St. Thomas (St. Paul).

Xiong, Chao. (1996). Hmong individuals with disabillities and rehabilitation services: a comparison between Hmong
clients and clients of other ethnic groups. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Yang, Nou. (1996). Hmong parents' views on American education and parent/teacher conferences. M.S. thesis,
University of Wisconsin, Stout. Bosher, Susan Dandridge. (1995). Acculturation, ethnicity and second language
acquisition: a study of Hmong students at the post-secondary level . Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Fendya, Jennifer Anne. (1995). Being a Hmong woman in America: A phenomenological study of female Hmong
college students. Ph.D. dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno. (UMI order no. DA
960555)

Jambunathan, Jaya. (1995). Hmong Cultural Practices and Beliefs. The Postpartum Period. Clinical Nursing
Research. 4(3): 335-345.

Lee, G.Y. (1995). "Culture and Adaptation: Hmong Refugees in Australia 1976-83." Paper reprinted at www.
hmongnet.org/hmong-au/ website. 8 p.

Liu, Theresa Pao-Chin (1995). Relationships Of Acculturation To The Academic Achievements And School
Adjustment Of Hmong-American Youths, PhD dissertation. Marquette University.

Lucke, Joyce Joanna. (1995). We all agree: a study of cultural consensus in a Hmong community . Ph.D., University
of Wisconsin.

Neira, John E. (1995). Acculturation of Hmong students: how they feel about life in the United States and their
school guidance counselors. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Vang, Lue. (1995). A cultural interpretation of Thai Hmong: beliefs, traditions and values about education and
leadership . Ed.D., University of San Francisco.

Bays, Sharon Arlene. (1994). Cultural politics and identity formation in a San Joaquin Valley Hmong community . Ph.
D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.

Capps, Lisa L. (1994). Change and continuity in the medical culture of the Hmong in Kansas City. Medical
Anthropology Quarterly (New Series) , 8(2), 161-177.

Donnelly, Nancy D. (1994). Changing lives of refugee Hmong women . Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Funke, W.H. (1994). An Exploratory Study of American Hmong and Mien Perceptions and Preferences for
Recreation. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico.

Hagemeister, A.K. (1994). Gender in Hmong Families: Voices From Two Generations. Master’s Thesis, University of
Minnesota.

Hutchinson, R. and M. McNall (1994). “Early Marriage in a Hmong Cohort.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 56
(August 1994): 579-590. Hein, Jeremy. (1994). From migrant to minority: Hmong refugees and the social
construction of identity in the United States. Sociological Inquiry, 64(3), 281-306.

Miyares. Ines Maria. (1994). Ethnic enclave formation and function: a study of Hmong refugees in the United States .
Ph.D. dissertation, Arizona State University.

Moua, Tou Yer. (1994). Hmong values and political leadership as perceived by the U.S. Hmongs . Ph.D.
dissertation, United States International University.

Timm, Joan Thrower. (1994). Hmong values and American education. Equity and Excellence in Education , 27(2),
36-44.

Trueba, H.T. and Y. Zou. (1994). Power in Education: The Case of Miao University Students and Its Significance for
American Culture. Washington D.C.: Falmer Press.

Vang, M.M. (1994). Hmong Mothers and Daughters: Cultural Adjustment and Conflict. Master’s Thesis, California
State University, Stanislaus.

Bliatout, B. (1993). “Hmong Death Customs: Traditional and Acculturated.” In Ethnic Variations in Dying, Death, and
Grief: Diversity in Universality, edited by D.K. Irish, K.F. Lundquist, and V.J. Nelsen, 79-100. Washington D.C.:
Taylor and Francis, 1993.

Dana, A.F. (1993). Courtship and Marriage Traditions of the Hmong. Master's Thesis, California State University,
Fresno.

Greene, William Lewis (1993). Identifying Cultural Values With Story Completions: Comparing The Narratives Of
Hmong And American Children, MA dissertation. California State University – Fresno.

Hammond, G.K. (1993). Hmong Refugees: Implicating Factors for Adult Education in Cultural Assimilation in
American Society. PhD Dissertation, Kansas State University.

Helsel, Deborah Gail (1993). ‘Here There Is Much More And Much Less’: Hmong-American Families, Culture And
Childbearing In The ‘Land Of The Giants’, PhD dissertation. University of California - San Francisco.

Helzer, J.J. (1993). Maintenance of Ethnic Identity: Hmong and Mien Settlement and Survival in Northern California.
Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico.

Holbrook, D. (1993). The Relationship of Parental Expectations and Acculturation on Hmong Elementary Student’s
Achievement. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico.

Koltyk, J.A. (1993). “Telling Narratives through Home Videos: Hmong Refugees and Self-Documentation of Life in
the Old and New Country.” Journal of American Folklore 106(422): 435-449.

Syrdahl, L.F. (1993). Hmong in Transition: A Study of the Acculturation Process of Hmong Male Adolescents in Butte
County. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico.

Guenette, L.R. (1992). The Magic is Gone: A Sociological Perspective of the Hmong View of United States Society.”
Master’s Thesis, Mankato State University.

Findlay, M.S. (1992). American Hmong High School Students: An Ethnographic Study of Communication and
Cultural Adaptation. PhD Dissertation, University of Oregon.

Hutchinson, R. (1992). “Acculturation in the Hmong Community.” Green Bay; Milwaukee: Center for Public Affairs,
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay; Institute on Race and Ethnicity, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Hutchinson, R. (1992). “Hmong Leisure and Recreation Activities.” In Managing Urban and High-Use Recreation
Settings: Selected Papers from the Urban Forestry and Ethnic Minorities and the Environment Paper Sessions. 4th
American Symposiums on Society and Resource Management, May 17-20, 1992, University of Wisconsin, Madison,
edited by Paul H. Gobster, 87-92. Chicago: United States Department of the Interior, Forest Service, North Central
Forest Experiment Station.

Jewell, C.M. (1992). Gender Roles and Second Language Acquisition in Hmong Acculturation. PhD Dissertation,
West Virginia University.

Mitchell, R.E., (1992). "Tradition, Change, and Hmong Refugees." In Creativity and Tradition in Folklore: New
Directions. Edited by S.J. Bronner. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press. pp. 263-275.

Mouanoutoua, V.L. (1992). Acculturation and Risk for Child Maltreatment in the Hmong Community. PhD
Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.

Rick, K., and J. Forward (1992). “Acculturation and Perceived Intergenerational Differences Among Hmong Youth.”
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 23(1): 85-94.

Timm, J. (1992). “Hmong Values and American Education.” Forward: Wisconsin Journal for Supervision and
Curriculum Development 16, no. 2 (1992): 1-11.

Vang, P. (1992). “Hmong Culture Related to Law and Education.” Denver: Hmong Council Education Committee.

Yang, D. (1992). “The Hmong: Enduring Traditions.” In Minority Cultures of Laos: Kammu, Lua’, Lahu, Hmong and
Mien, edited by J. Lewis, 249-326. Rancho Cordova, CA: Southeast Asian Community Resource Center, Folsom
Cordova Unified School District, 1992.

Capps, L.L. (1991). “Concepts of Health and Illness of the Protestant Hmong.” PhD Dissertation, University of
Kansas, 1991.

Fish, A.J. (1991). The Hmong of St. Paul, Minnesota: The Effects of Culture, Gender, and Family Networks on
Adolescents’ Plans for the Future. Master’s Thesis, University of Minnesota.

Henry, R. (1991). Measles, Hmong, and Migration: Culture Change and Illness Management Under Conditions of
Immigration.” Master’s Thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Himes, H.K. (1991). Traditional Parenting Practices and Attitudes of the Hmong: A Foundation for a Culturally
Sensitive Parenting Program. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Fresno.

Weinstein-Shr, G. and N.Z. Henkin (1991). “Continuity and Change: Intergenerational Relations in Southeast Asian
Refugee Families.” Marriage and Family Review 16 (Summer 1991): 351-367.

Yang, D. (1991). “Generational Conflict Among the Hmong in the United States.” Hmong Forum 2 (1991): 35-38.

Bliatout, B. (1990). "Hmong Beliefs About Health and Illness." Hmong Forum, 1:40-45.

Hughes, M.K. (1990). Hmong Concepts of Parenthood and Family in the United States. Master’s Thesis, Washington
State University.

Moore, D.L. (1990). “Between Cultures: Oral History of Hmong Teenagers in Minneapolis.” Vietnam Generation 2,
no. 3: 38-52.

Qi, L.Q. (1990). "The Multifaceted and Flowering Hmong Culture." Hmong Forum, 1:17-24.

Schriever, S.H. (1990). “Comparison of Beliefs and Practices of Ethnic Viet and Lao Hmong Concerning Illness,
Healing, Death, and Mourning: Implications for Hospice Care with Refugees in Canada.” Journal of Palliative Care 6:
42-49.

Trueba, H.T., Jacobs, L. and E. Kirton. (1990). Cultural Conflict and Adaptation: The Case of Hmong Children in
American Society. New York: Falmer Press, 1990.

Vang, S.M. (1990). The Effects of Hmong Family Responsibilities on the Level of Performance of Hmong Students in
the Vocational Program at the St. Paul Technical College, St. Paul, Minnesota. Master’s Thesis, University of
Wisconsin – Stout. Waller, S.R. (1990). Elderly Hmong in Transition: Mental Health, Acculturation, and Learning
English. PhD Dissertation, University of New Mexico, 1990.

Brainerd J. and A. Zaharlick. (1989). “Changing Health Beliefs and Behaviors of Resettled Laotian Refugees: Ethnic
Variation in Adaptation.” Social Science and Medicine 29: 845-852.

Donnelly, N.D. (1989). The Changing Lives of Refugee Hmong Women. PhD Dissertation, University of Washington.

Goldstein, B.L. (1988). “In Search of Survival: The Education and Integration of Hmong Refugee Girls.” Journal of
Ethnic Studies 16 (Summer 1998): 1-27.

Hirayama, K.K. and H. Hirayama. (1988). “Stress, Social Supports and Adaptational Patterns in Hmong Refugee
Families.” Amerasia Journal 14 (Winter 1988): 93-108.

Rick, K. (1988). An Investigation of the Process of Biculturation with Hmong Refugees. PhD Dissertation, University
of Colorado, Boulder.

Tapp, N. (1988). "The Reformation of Culture: Hmong Refugees from Laos." Journal of Refugee Studies 1, no. 1
(1988): 20-37.

Vangay, J.V.N. (1988). Hmong Parents’ Cultural Attitudes and the Sex-Ratio Imbalance of Hmong Merced High
School Graduates.” Master’s Thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.

Dunnigan, T. (1987). "Segmentary Kinship in An Urban Society: The Hmong of St. Paul-Minneapolis."
Anthropological Quarterly 55(3): 126-134.

Monzel, K.L. (1987). The Denver-Boulder Hmong: A Geographical Perspective on the Acculturation and Satisfaction
of an Indochinese Refugee Community. Master’s Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder.

Rock J.M. (1987). A Value Orientation Used as a Cultural Assessment Tool for Members of a Hmong Community.
Master’s Thesis.

Sheybani, M.M. (1987). “Cultural Defense: One Person’s Culture is Another’s Crime.” Loyola of Los Angeles
International and Comparative Law Journal 9 (Summer 1987): 751-83.

Dunnigan, T. (1986). “Processes of Identity Maintenance in Hmong Society.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.
L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 41-53.

Goldstein, B.L. (1986). “Resolving Sexual Assault: Hmong and the American Legal System.” In The Hmong in
Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 135-43.

Gross, C.G. (1986). “The Hmong in Isla Vista: Obstacles and Enhancements to Adjustment.” In The Hmong in
Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 145-58.

Hang, D. (1986). “Tam Tuab Neeg: Connecting the Generations.” The Hmong World 1: 33-41.

Lee, G.Y. (1986). “Culture and Adaptation: Hmong Refugees in Australia.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L.
Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 55-71.

Lee, P.A. (1986). “Health Beliefs of Pregnant and Postpartum Hmong Women.” Western Journal of Nursing
Research 8 (February 1986): 83-93

Meredith, W.H., Abbott, D.A., and S.L. Cramer. (1986). “Family Stress and Cultural Adaptation: Hmong Economics
Needs of Lao Hmong Refugees.” Hmong Economics Research Journal 15 (December 1986): 90-96.

Meredith, W.H. and G.P. Rowe. (1986). “Changes in Hmong Refugee Marital Attitudes in America.” In The Hmong in
Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing and A.S. Deinard, 121-133.

Meredith, W.H. and G.P. Rowe. (1986). “Changes in Lao Hmong Marital Attitudes After Immigrating to the United
States.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 17 (Spring 1986): 117-126.

Scott, George Morgan, JR. (1986). Migrants Without Mountains: The Politics Of Sociocultural Adjustment Among
The Lao Hmong Refugees In San Diego (Acculturation, Ethnic Identity, Assimilation, Immigration, California), PhD
dissertation. University of California – San Diego.

Smalley, W.A. (1986). “Stages of Hmong Cultural Adaptation.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.
T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard. 7-22.

Thao, C.T. (1986). "Hmong Customs on Marriage, Divorce, and the Rights of Married Women." In The Hmong
World, Editors, Brenda Johns and David Strecker, New Haven, CT: Council on Southeast Asia Studies, pp. 74-99.

Thao, X. (1986). “Hmong Perception of Illness and Traditional Ways in Healing.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by
G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing and A.S. Deinard, 365-78.

Bishop, K.A.(1985). The Hmong Of Central California: An Investigation and Analysis Of The Changing Family
Structure During Liminality, Acculturation And Transition, EdD dissertation. University of San Francisco.

Downing, B.T. and J.W. Fuller (1985). “Hmong Names: Change and Variation in a Bilingual Context.” Minnesota
Papers in Linguistics and Philosophy of Language 10 (April 1985): 39-50.

Lee, G.Y. (1985). “Aspects of Hmong Residence, Household, and Marriage.” Minneapolis: Southeast Asian Refugee
Studies Project, University of Minnesota, 1985.

Lee, G.Y. (1985). “Hmong Social Structure and World View.” Minneapolis: Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Project,
University of Minnesota, 1985.

Thao, X. (1984). “Southeast Asian Refugees of Rhode Island: The Hmong Perception of Illness.” Rhode Island
Medical Journal 67 (July 1984): 323-30.

Gross, C.G. (1983). “Transition in Perspective: A Study of the Hmong of Isla Vista.” Discovery, UCSB Journal of
Undergraduate Research 6 (Spring 1983): 1-34.

Dunnigan, Timothy (1982). Segmentary Kinship in an Urban Society: The Hmong of St. Paul - Minneapolis.
Anthropological Quarterly 55(3):126-136.

Potter, Gayle S., and Alice Whire (1982). Traditional Hmong Birth Customs: A Historical Study. In The Hmong in the
West: Observations and Reports. Bruce T. Downing and Douglas P. Olney, eds., pp. 48-62. Minneapolis: Center for
Urban and Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota.

Sahl, E. (1982). Management of the Introduction to American Culture for Southeast Asian Children. Paper read at
the Southwestern Anthropological Anthropological Association Meetings, April 1982. (Unpublished).

Vang, Kao (1982). Hmong Marriage Customs: A Current Assessment. In The Hmong in the West: Observations and
Reports. Bruce T. Downing and Douglas P. Olney, eds., pp. 29-47. Minneapolis: Center for Urban and Regional
Affairs, University of Minnesota.

Yang, Neng (1982). Hmong History and Culture. (unpublished)

Geis, R. (1981). The Hmong in America: Acculturation and the Organization of an Ethnic Community in the United
States. (Unpublished).

Greenebaum, Elaheh A., and Lucille Rogers [1980] The Hmong of Indochina: An Introduction to Hmong Culture.
(unpublished)

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Bliatout, B.T. (1979). Problems of Acculturation of the Hmong in Hawaii. Honolulu: Institute of Behavioral Sciences.

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Linguistics.

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of Ethnic Studies 7: 25-42.

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John Whitemore, ed. pp. 93-102. Ann Arbor: Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan.