Hmong Cultural Values, Customs and Acculturation in the West
Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD
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in the Midwestern United States. PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
Burt, S. (2009). “Naming, Renaming and Self-Naming Among Hmong Americans.” Names: A Journal of Onomastics
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Hadjiyanni, T. (2009). “Aesthetics in displacement – Hmong, Somali and Mexican home-making practices in
Minnesota.” International Journal of Consumer Studies 33(5): 541-549.
Lee, P. (2009). Racial Assimilation and Popular Culture: Hmong Youth (Sub)cultures and the
Persistance of the Color Line. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Lee, S. (2009). "Searching for the Hmong People’s Ethnic Homeland and Multiple Dimensions of Transnational
Longing: From the Viewpoint of the Hmong in Laos." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-18.
Heu, M. (2008). Challenges of Volunteerism within a Cultural Community: Case Study of Young
Hmong Adults in Kitchener-Waterloo. M.S.W. Thesis, Wilfrid Laurier University (Canada).
Lemoine, J. (2008). "To Tell the Truth." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-29.
Schein, L. (2008). “Neoliberalism and Hmong/Miao Transnational Media Ventures.” In Li Zhang and Aihwa Ong, Eds.
Privatizing China: Socialism from Afar. Ithaca:Cornell University Press, 103-119.
Watt, H. (2008). "The Power of the Spoken Word in Defining Religion and Thought: A Case Study." Hmong Studies
Journal, Volume 9: 1-25.
Yang, K. (2007). "An Assessment of the Hmong American New Year and Its Implications for Hmong-American
Culture." Hmong Studies Journal Vol 8, 2007
Moua, T.T.. (2007). Change and Choice: Hmongs’ Identification with a Homeland. PsyD Dissertation, Alliant
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Lee, G.Y. (2006). "Dreaming Across the Oceans: Globalization and Cultural Reinvention in the Hmong Diaspora."
Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 7, 2006.
Thao, Yer J. (2006). The Mong Oral Tradition: Cultural Memory in the Absence of Written Language. Jefferson,
North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Incorporated Publishers.
Chiu, Jeannie. (2004). "'I Salute the Spirit of My Communities': Autoethnographic Innovations in Hmong American
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Julian, Roberta. (2004). “Living Locally, Dreaming Globally: Transnational Cultural Imaginings and Practices in the
Hmong Diaspora.” In The Hmong of Australia: Culture and Diaspora. Eds. Nicholas Tapp and Gary Yia Lee.
Canberra, Australia: Pandanus Books, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National
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Mote, Sue Murphy. (2004). Hmong and American: Stories of Transition to a Strange Land. Jefferson, North Carolina:
McFarland and Company, Publishers.
Chang, John Paokong and Jerry Rosiek. (2003). “Anti-Colonialist Antinomies in a Biology Lesson: A Case Study of
Cultural Conflict in a Science Classroom.” Curriculum Inquiry 33 (3), 251-290.
Moua, Teng. (2003). The Hmong Culture: Kinship, Marriage and Family Systems. M.S. Thesis, University of
Sandage, Steven J., Hill, Peter C., and Henry C. Vang. (2003). “Toward a Multicultural Positive Psychology:
Indigenous Forgiveness and Hmong Culture.” The Counseling Psychologist 31(5): 564-592.
Yang, Tou T. (2003). "Hmong of Germany: Preliminary Report on the Resettlement of Lao Hmong Refugees in
Germany." Hmong Studies Journal, 4:1-14
Lemoine, Jacques. (2002). “Hmong Identity: An Asset for Success in the West.” Speech Presented at the Hmong
National Conference, Milwaukee, WI, April 2002, 13 pages including references.
Omoto, Susan. (2002). Hmong Milestones in America: Citizens in a New World. Evanston, IL: John Gordon Burke
Tapp, Nicholas. (2002). “Cultural Accommodations in Southwest China: The ‘Han Miao’ and Problems in the
Ethnography of the Hmong.” Asian Folklore Studies 61: 77-104.
Yang, Cziasarh Neng. (2002). Cultural capital : old Hmong culture in modern times. Ed.D. Dissertation, University of
Saint Thomas, Saint Paul, MN.
Lo, F. (2001). The Promised Land: Socioeconomic Reality of the Hmong in Urban America. Bristol, IN: Wyndham Hill
Smith, N.J. (2001). Ethnicity, reciprocity, reputation and punishment: An ethnoexperimental study of cooperation
among the Chaldeans and Hmong of Detroit (Michigan). Phd Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Cha, D. (2000). Hmong American Concepts of Health, Healing, and Illness and Their Experience with Conventional
Medicine. PhD Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder.
Lo, Fungchatou (2000). The Promised Land: Socioeconomic adjustment of the Hmong in Milwaukee, 1976-2000,
PhD dissertation. The University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee.
Rice, P.L. (2000). Hmong Women and Reproduction. Westport, CT: Bergin and Harvey.
Tapp, Nicholas. (2000). “Ritual Relations and Identity: Hmong and Others.” In Civility and Savagery: Social Identity in
Tai States. A. Turton, Ed. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 84-103.
Westby, Joel C. (2000). The Hmong and Acculturation. MSW Thesis, University of Saint Thomas (St. Paul, MN).
Lee, Pao (1999). Language maintenance and language shift among second-generation Hmong teenagers, EdD
dissertation. University of San Francisco.
Mason-Chagil (1999). Hmong parents' perspectives on the role of schools in raising and educating children in the
United States, PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota.
Rice, P.L. (1999). “When the baby falls!: The cultural construction of miscarriage among Hmong women in
Australia.” Women and Health. 30(1): 85-103.
Thao, Paoze. (1999). Mong Education at the crossroads. Lanham. Md.: University Press of America.
Wathum-Ocama, John Collins (1999). Attitudes of parents of Hmong deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) students: An
ethnographic study, PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota.
Cooper, Robert (Editor) (1998). The Hmong: A guide to traditional lifestyles . Singapore: Times Editions.
Hein, J. (1998). “The Hmong Cultural Repertoire: Explaining Cultural Variation Within an Ethnic Group.” Hmong
Studies Journal 2(2): 1-11.
Her, Mymee (Mee). (1998). A construct validity study of the values questionnaire using two divergent groups:
Hmong and white Americans. Ph.D. dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.
The Hmong people: Stories and culture. (1998). Created by the Hmong students at the Saturn Riverfront School.
Saint Paul, MN: The School.
Kang, Ko Bruce. (1998). Acculturation as a predictor of attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help in
the Hmong community. Ph.D. dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.
Timm, J.T., Chiang, B., and B.D. Finn. (1998). “Acculturation in the Cognitive Style of Laotian Hmong Students in the
United States.” Equity and Excellence in Education 31(1): 29-35.
Warner, M.E. and M. Mochel. (1998). “The Hmong and Health Care in Merced, California.” Hmong Studies Journal 2
(2): 1-21. Vang, Ka. (1998). The relationship between cultural retention among selected Hmong parents and the
academic achievement of their children. Ed.D. dissertation, University of San Francisco.
Vang, See J. (1998). Hmong perception and behaviors regarding shamanic practice and western medicine. M.S.
thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.
Xiong, Michael Moua. (1998). Hmong students' attitude toward family life and education. M.S. thesis, University of
Yang, Sou Vanh. (1998). The impact of the home environment on Hmong children's academic performance in the
education system. M.S.W. thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.
Bosher, S. (1997). “Language and cultural identity: A study of Hmong students at the postsecondary level.” TESOL
QUARTERLY. 31(3): 593-603.
Fang, Chao (1997). Intergenerational values differences between younger and older Hmong in the United States,
PhD dissertation. United State International University.
Getahun, Linde Joveda. (1997). Women in cultural transition: Voices of Hmong mothers in an urban school. Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Hang, MayKao Yangblongsua. (1997) "Growing Up Hmong American: Truancy Policy and Girls." Hmong Studies
Journal Vol. 1 No. 2.
Howard, Katsuyo. (1997). Hmong families. In Understanding cultural parenting values, traditions and practices.
Bavolek, Stephen J. (Ed.), (pp. ). Park City, Utah: Family Development Resources.
Howard, Katsuyo Kunugi (1996). Hmong Parenting Practices In Transition: A Participatory Study, EDD dissertation.
University of San Francisco.
Lee, Gary Yia. (1996) "Cultural Identity In Post-Modern Society: Reflections on What is a Hmong?"Hmong Studies
Journal Vol. 1 No. 1.
Reavill, Lisa K. (1996). Promise and paradox: the experience of Hmong women in college. Ph.D. dissertation,
University of St. Thomas (St. Paul).
Xiong, Chao. (1996). Hmong individuals with disabillities and rehabilitation services: a comparison between Hmong
clients and clients of other ethnic groups. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.
Yang, Nou. (1996). Hmong parents' views on American education and parent/teacher conferences. M.S. thesis,
University of Wisconsin, Stout. Bosher, Susan Dandridge. (1995). Acculturation, ethnicity and second language
acquisition: a study of Hmong students at the post-secondary level . Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Fendya, Jennifer Anne. (1995). Being a Hmong woman in America: A phenomenological study of female Hmong
college students. Ph.D. dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno. (UMI order no. DA
Jambunathan, Jaya. (1995). Hmong Cultural Practices and Beliefs. The Postpartum Period. Clinical Nursing
Research. 4(3): 335-345.
Lee, G.Y. (1995). "Culture and Adaptation: Hmong Refugees in Australia 1976-83." Paper reprinted at www.
hmongnet.org/hmong-au/ website. 8 p.
Liu, Theresa Pao-Chin (1995). Relationships Of Acculturation To The Academic Achievements And School
Adjustment Of Hmong-American Youths, PhD dissertation. Marquette University.
Lucke, Joyce Joanna. (1995). We all agree: a study of cultural consensus in a Hmong community . Ph.D., University
Neira, John E. (1995). Acculturation of Hmong students: how they feel about life in the United States and their
school guidance counselors. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.
Vang, Lue. (1995). A cultural interpretation of Thai Hmong: beliefs, traditions and values about education and
leadership . Ed.D., University of San Francisco.
Bays, Sharon Arlene. (1994). Cultural politics and identity formation in a San Joaquin Valley Hmong community . Ph.
D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Capps, Lisa L. (1994). Change and continuity in the medical culture of the Hmong in Kansas City. Medical
Anthropology Quarterly (New Series) , 8(2), 161-177.
Donnelly, Nancy D. (1994). Changing lives of refugee Hmong women . Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Funke, W.H. (1994). An Exploratory Study of American Hmong and Mien Perceptions and Preferences for
Recreation. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico.
Hagemeister, A.K. (1994). Gender in Hmong Families: Voices From Two Generations. Master’s Thesis, University of
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construction of identity in the United States. Sociological Inquiry, 64(3), 281-306.
Miyares. Ines Maria. (1994). Ethnic enclave formation and function: a study of Hmong refugees in the United States .
Ph.D. dissertation, Arizona State University.
Moua, Tou Yer. (1994). Hmong values and political leadership as perceived by the U.S. Hmongs . Ph.D.
dissertation, United States International University.
Timm, Joan Thrower. (1994). Hmong values and American education. Equity and Excellence in Education , 27(2),
Trueba, H.T. and Y. Zou. (1994). Power in Education: The Case of Miao University Students and Its Significance for
American Culture. Washington D.C.: Falmer Press.
Vang, M.M. (1994). Hmong Mothers and Daughters: Cultural Adjustment and Conflict. Master’s Thesis, California
State University, Stanislaus.
Bliatout, B. (1993). “Hmong Death Customs: Traditional and Acculturated.” In Ethnic Variations in Dying, Death, and
Grief: Diversity in Universality, edited by D.K. Irish, K.F. Lundquist, and V.J. Nelsen, 79-100. Washington D.C.:
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Dana, A.F. (1993). Courtship and Marriage Traditions of the Hmong. Master's Thesis, California State University,
Greene, William Lewis (1993). Identifying Cultural Values With Story Completions: Comparing The Narratives Of
Hmong And American Children, MA dissertation. California State University – Fresno.
Hammond, G.K. (1993). Hmong Refugees: Implicating Factors for Adult Education in Cultural Assimilation in
American Society. PhD Dissertation, Kansas State University.
Helsel, Deborah Gail (1993). ‘Here There Is Much More And Much Less’: Hmong-American Families, Culture And
Childbearing In The ‘Land Of The Giants’, PhD dissertation. University of California - San Francisco.
Helzer, J.J. (1993). Maintenance of Ethnic Identity: Hmong and Mien Settlement and Survival in Northern California.
Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico.
Holbrook, D. (1993). The Relationship of Parental Expectations and Acculturation on Hmong Elementary Student’s
Achievement. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico.
Koltyk, J.A. (1993). “Telling Narratives through Home Videos: Hmong Refugees and Self-Documentation of Life in
the Old and New Country.” Journal of American Folklore 106(422): 435-449.
Syrdahl, L.F. (1993). Hmong in Transition: A Study of the Acculturation Process of Hmong Male Adolescents in Butte
County. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico.
Guenette, L.R. (1992). The Magic is Gone: A Sociological Perspective of the Hmong View of United States Society.”
Master’s Thesis, Mankato State University.
Findlay, M.S. (1992). American Hmong High School Students: An Ethnographic Study of Communication and
Cultural Adaptation. PhD Dissertation, University of Oregon.
Hutchinson, R. (1992). “Acculturation in the Hmong Community.” Green Bay; Milwaukee: Center for Public Affairs,
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay; Institute on Race and Ethnicity, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
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Settings: Selected Papers from the Urban Forestry and Ethnic Minorities and the Environment Paper Sessions. 4th
American Symposiums on Society and Resource Management, May 17-20, 1992, University of Wisconsin, Madison,
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Jewell, C.M. (1992). Gender Roles and Second Language Acquisition in Hmong Acculturation. PhD Dissertation,
West Virginia University.
Mitchell, R.E., (1992). "Tradition, Change, and Hmong Refugees." In Creativity and Tradition in Folklore: New
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Mouanoutoua, V.L. (1992). Acculturation and Risk for Child Maltreatment in the Hmong Community. PhD
Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.
Rick, K., and J. Forward (1992). “Acculturation and Perceived Intergenerational Differences Among Hmong Youth.”
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 23(1): 85-94.
Timm, J. (1992). “Hmong Values and American Education.” Forward: Wisconsin Journal for Supervision and
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Vang, P. (1992). “Hmong Culture Related to Law and Education.” Denver: Hmong Council Education Committee.
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Capps, L.L. (1991). “Concepts of Health and Illness of the Protestant Hmong.” PhD Dissertation, University of
Fish, A.J. (1991). The Hmong of St. Paul, Minnesota: The Effects of Culture, Gender, and Family Networks on
Adolescents’ Plans for the Future. Master’s Thesis, University of Minnesota.
Henry, R. (1991). Measles, Hmong, and Migration: Culture Change and Illness Management Under Conditions of
Immigration.” Master’s Thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
Himes, H.K. (1991). Traditional Parenting Practices and Attitudes of the Hmong: A Foundation for a Culturally
Sensitive Parenting Program. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Fresno.
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the Vocational Program at the St. Paul Technical College, St. Paul, Minnesota. Master’s Thesis, University of
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of an Indochinese Refugee Community. Master’s Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder.
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