Hmong Educational Adaptation

Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD

DePouw, C. (2012). "When Culture implies Deficit: Placing Race at the Center of Hmong American Education." Race,
Ethnicity, and Education, 15(2): 223-239.

Huster, K. (2012). "The Grammar and Vocabulary Challenges of Generation 1.5 Hmong College Women  in  
Academia." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol. 13(1).

Xiong, Y.S. (2012). "Hmong Americans’ Educational Attainment: Recent Changes and Remaining Challenges."
Hmong Studies Journal, Vol. 13(2).

Kaiser, E.A. (2011). Sociophonetics of Hmong American English in Minnesota. PhD Dissertation, University of

Lavoie, C. (2011). “The Educational Realities of Hmong Communities in Vietnam: The Voices of Teachers.” Critical
Inquiry in Language Studies 8(2): 153-175.

Mahowald, M.C. (2011). Fourth Grade Hmong Students’ Reading Proficiency. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of

Mao, D. Deenanath, V. and Z.B. Xiong (2012). "Hmong Students’ Perceptions of Their Family Environment: A
Consensual Qualitative Analysis of Family Photos."Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13(1).

Ngo B. and J. Leet-Otley. (2011). “Discourses about Gender Among Hmong American Policymakers: Conflicting Views
about Gender, Culture and Hmong Youth.” Journal of Language, Identity and Education 10(2): 99-118.

Tabrizi, P. (2011). The Role of Social and Cultural Factors in the Degree Completion of Female Hmong College
Students. Ph.D Dissertation, Capella University.

Vang, K.M. (2011). Living a Double Life: How Hmong Adolescents adapt with Clashing Cultures. Ed.S. Dissertation,
California State University, Fresno.

Vue, T. (2011). Variables of High-Performing Hmong English Learners. Ed.D. Dissertation, California State University,

Xiong, S. and S.E. Lee. (2011). "Hmong Students in Higher Education and Academic Support Programs." Hmong
Studies Journal, 12: 1-20.

Xiong, Y.S. and N. Xiong. (2011). "The Prevalence of English Monolingualism and Its Association with Generational
Status among Hmong Americans, 2005-2009." Hmong Studies Journal, 12: 1-22.

Yang, A.A. and T.L. Morris. (2011). “Hmong American Women Crossing Borders in Nursing Education: Two Case
Studies.” Journal of Nursing Education 50(5): 275-277.

Bakken, J.P. and B. B. Brown. (2010). “Adolescent Secretive Behavior: African American and Hmong Adolescents’
Strategies and Justifications for Managing Parents’ Knowledge about Peers.” Journal of Research on Adolescence 20
(2): 359-388.

Chang, S. (2010). Perceived Hmong Cultural Barriers in School Counseling. M.S. Thesis, University of

De Costa, P.I. (2010). “From Hmong Refugee to Transformer: A Bourdieusian Take on a Hmong Learner’
s Trajectory.” TESOL Quarterly 44(3): 517-541.

Huffcutt, M. (2010). American Hmong Youth and College Readiness: Integrating Culture and Educational
Success. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Khang, M.S. (2010). Hmong Traditional Roles and the Pursuit of Higher Education for Married Hmong
American Women. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Lee, J.K. and K. Green. (2010). "Acculturation Processes of Hmong in Eastern Wisconsin." Hmong Studies Journal
11: 1-21.

Lor, P. (2010). "Hmong Teachers: Life Experiences and Teaching Perspectives." Multicultural Education
17(3): 36-40.

Moua, M.Y. and S.D. Lamborn. (2010). Hmong American Adolescents’ Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization Practices.”
Journal of Adolescent Research 25(3): 416-440.

Ngo, B. (2010). “Doing ‘Diversity’ at Dynamic High: Problems and Possibilities of Multicultural Education in Practice.”
Education and Urban Society 42(4): 473-495.

Supple, A. et al. (2010). "Parental Influences on Hmong University Students Success." Hmong Studies Journal, 11: 1-

Schuster, R. (2010). Examining Treatment Outcomes for Hmong American Youth with Delinquency
Problems. PhD Dissertation, Indiana University.

Va, M.A. (2010). Cross-linguistic Influence in a Third Language: The Case of Hmong-English
Bilingual Learners of French. M.A. Thesis, University of California – Davis.

Xiong, Y.S. (2010). “State-Mandated Language Classification: A Study of Hmong American Students’ Access to
College-Preparatory Curricula.” AAPI Nexus Journal, 8(1): 17-42.

Yang, A. (2010). Themes in the Career Development of 1.5 Generation Hmong American Women. PhD
Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Chang, Z. (2009). An investigation of Contextual Factors and Dispositional Characteristics in the Career
Development of Hmong American and Caucasian American College Students: A Comparison Study   A
Comparison Study Using a  Social Cognitive Career Theory Perspective. PhD Dissertation, University of

Lee, P. (2009). Racial Assimilation and Popular Culture: Hmong Youth (Sub)cultures and the
Persistance of the Color Line. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Lee, X.W. (2009). The Elementary and Middle School Principal’s Role in the Involvement of
Mong Parents in their Children’s Education. Ed.D. Dissertation, University of the Pacific.

Nguyen, J. (2009). Acculturation, Autonomy, and Parent-Adolescent Relationships in Hmong
Families. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Thao, N.X. (2009). "Examining family and community influences on the attitudes to education and career aspirations
of Hmong/Mong high school students." PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Upadhyay, B. (2009). “Teaching Science for Empowerment in an Urban Classroom: A Case
Study of a Hmong Teacher.” Equity and Excellence in Education 42(2): 217-232.

Vang, K. (2009). "Do I Look Up or Do I Look Down? Reflections of a Hmong American English Learner and Educator."
Journal of Southeast Asian American Education & Advancement, Volume 4.  

Lee, J.K. and K. Green. (2008). "Hmong Parental Involvement and Support: A Comparison Between Families of High
and Low Achieving High School Seniors." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-27.

Kan, P.F. and K. Kohnert. (2008). “Fast Mapping by Bilingual Preschool Children.” Journal of Child Language. 35(3):

Lee, J.K. (2008). “The Family Characteristics, Parenting Methods, and Parental Education
Philosophies, Experiences, and Expectations of Hmong Parents and Children.” PhD Dissertation,Capella University.

Lee, M., and Madyun, N. (2008). "School racial composition and academic achievement: the case of Hmong LEP
students in the USA." Educational Studies 34(4): 319-331.

Lee, S.J. and M.R. Hawkins. (2008). “`Family is Here’: Learning in Community-Based After-School Programs.” Theory
Into Practice 47(1): 51-58.

Nguyen, J. (2008). "Acculturation, autonomy, and parent-adolescent relationships in Hmong families." PhD
Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.  

Rochon, R., Tanabe, Clifton S. and T.H. Horstman-Riphahan. (2008). “Hmong Educators in Western Wisconsin.” In M.
E. Brisk, Ed., Language, Culture, and Community in Teacher Education. New York: L. Erlbaum Associates, 227-248.

Vang, T.S. (2008). “User Resistance to Information Technology: A Case Study of the Hmong American Partnership.”
DBA Dissertation, Capella University.

Yang, P.P. (2008). “A Phenomenological Case Study: Factors in Hmong-American Students’ Successful Transition to
a Large Public Research Institution.” PhD Dissertation, Edgewood College.

Vue, D.C. (2008). "The three eras of Hmong educational history in Laos: French colonial, Laotian independence, and
USAID, 1917--1975." PhD Dissertation, Capella University.

Xiong, Z.B., Retting, K.D., and A. Tuicomepee. (2008). “Differences in Nonshared Individual, School, and Family
Variables Between Delinquent and Nondelinquent Hmong Adolescents.” The Journal of Psychology 142(4): 337-355.

Xiong, Z.B., A. Tuicomepee and K.B. Rettig. (2008). "Adolescents’ Problem Behaviors and Parent-Adolescent
Conflicts in Hmong Immigrant Families." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-21.

Xiong, Z.B., Yang, K.K., and J.K. Lee. (2008). “What Helps and Hinders Hmong Pre-Kindergartners’ School
Readiness: Learning from and about the Hmong in St. Paul, Minnesota.” Research Report for Ready 4 K. April 2008.   

Adler, S.M. (2007). “Hmong Home-School Relations.” In Clara C. Park, Editor, Asian American Education,
Acculturation, Literacy Development and Learning. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Brock, C.H. (2007). “Exploring an English Language Learner’s Literacy Learning Opportunities:
A Collaborative Case Study Analysis.” Urban Education 42(5): 470-501.

Duffy, J.N. (2007). Writing from These Roots: Literacy in a Hmong American Community.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Duffy, J. (2007). “Recalling the Letter: The Uses of Oral Testimony in Historical Studies of Literacy.” Written
Communication 24(1): 84-107.

Homma, Y. and E. Saewyc. (2007). “The Emotional Well-Being of Asian-American Sexual Minority Youth in School.”
Journal of LGBT Health Research 3(1): 67-78.

Lee, S.J.. (2007). “The ‘good’ news and the bad ‘news’: the “Americanization of Hmong girls.” In Bonnie J. Ross
Leadbeater and Niobe Way, Eds. Urban Girls Revisited: Building Strengths. New York: New York University Press,

Lee, S.J. (2007). “The Truth and Myth of the Model Minority: The Case of Hmong Americans.” In
Susan J. Paik and Herbert J. Walberg, (Eds). Narrowing the Achievement Gap: Strategies for
Educating Latino, Black and Asian Students. New York: Springer, pp. 171-184.

Lee, S.C. (2007). "The self-rated social well-being of Hmong college students in Northern California." Hmong Studies
Journal, Vol 8, 2007

Moua, M.T. (2007). An Investigation of Factors impacting Hmong Students’ Completion of a Four-Year Postsecondary
Degree. Ed.D. Dissertation, California State University, Fresno and University of California, Davis.

Ngo, B., Bigelow, M., and K. Wahlstrom. (2007). "The Transition of Wat Tham Krabok Hmong Children to Saint Paul
Public Schools: Perspectives of Teachers, Principals, and Hmong Parents." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 8, 2007

Ngo, B. and S.J. Lee. (2007). “Complicating the Image of Model Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian
American Education.” Review of Educational Research 77(4): 415-53.

Rah, Y. (2007). How School Leaders Address the Needs of Refugee Students. PhD Dissertation, University of

Sechrist, Z.S. (2007). “The Relationship of Hmong Students’ Ethnic Identity Development to Self-Esteem and
Academic Achievement.” EdS Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Stout. http://www.uwstout.

Stang, J., Kong, A., Story, M., Eisenberg, M.E. and D. Neumark-Sztainer. (2007). “Food and Weight-Related Patterns
and Behaviors of Hmong Adolescents.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107(6): 936-941.

Vang, X.X. (2007). “Awareness of Hmong Religious Practices and Rituals in Regards to
Counseling Hmong Students.” MS Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. http://www.uwstout.

Vue, P.P. (2007). Factors that Contribute towards and/or impede Hmong Women from Obtaining a Higher Education
Degree. Ed.D. Dissertation, California State University, Fresno and University of California, Davis.

Xiong, M. (2007). Hmong Parents’ Attitudes, Perceptions of Disability, and Expectations of Children with Disabilities: A
Qualitative Study of Its Impact on Academic Performance. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Alseben, Bev (2006). “Preliterate English Learners: Refugee Camp to the U.S. Classroom.” California English,
Summer 2006: 6-8.

Collison, S.C. (2006). Hmong Parents’ Beliefs and Expectations of School Readiness. MS Thesis, California State
University, Fresno.

Goodkind, Jessica R. (2006). “Promoting Hmong Refugees’ Well-Being Through Mutual Learning: Valuing Knowledge,
Culture, and Experience.” American Journal of Community Psychology 37(1/2): 77-93.

Burt, S.M. and H. Yang. (2005). “Growing Up Shifting: Immigrant Children, Their Families, and the Schools.” In
Denham, K. and A. Lobeck (Eds). Language in the Schools: Integrating Linguistic Knowledge into K-12 Teaching.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, pp. 29-39.

Krashen, Stephen. (2005). “The Hard Work Hypothesis: Is Doing Your Homework Enough to Overcome the Effects of
Poverty?” Multicultural Education 12 (4): 16-19.

Kwon, Sylvia E. (2006). Recognition, identity construction, and second-generation Hmong American students in an
urban high school. PhD Dissertation, University of Michigan.

Lee, Stacey J. (2006). “Additional complexities: social class, ethnicity, generation, and gender in Asian American
student experiences.” Race Ethnicity and Education 9(1): 17–28.

Ngo, Bic. (2006). “Learning from the Margins: The Education of Southeast and South Asian Americans in Context.”
Race, Ethnicity & Education 9(1): 51-65.

Small, S.A, Tiwari, G. and M. Huser. (2006). “The cultural education of academic evaluators: Lessons from a
University-Hmong community partnership.” American Journal of Community Psychology 37 (3-4): 357-364.  

Thao, Y.J. (2006). Mong Oral Tradition: Cultural Memory in the Absence of Written Language. Jefferson, N.C.:
McFarland & Company, Incorporated.

Xiong, Yang Sao and Min Zhou. (2006). “Structuring Inequity: How California Selectively Tests, Classifies, and Tracks
Language-Minority Students.” In Daniel J.B. Mitchell, ed., California Policy Options. Los Angeles: UCLA Ralph and
Goldy Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies.

Lee, Stacey J. (2005). “Learning about Race, Learning about “America”: Hmong American High School Students. In
Lois Weis and Michelle Fine (Editors) Beyond Silenced Voices: Class, Race, and Gender in United States Schools.
Albany: State University of New York Press.  

McClain-Ruelle, Leslie and Kao Xiong. (2005). "Continuing the promise: Recruiting and preparing Hmong-American
educators for Central Wisconsin" Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 6, 2005.

Kohnert, Kathryn; Dongsun Yim; Nett, Kelly; Pui Fong Kan; Duran, Lillian.Intervention With Linguistically Diverse
Preschool Children: A Focus on Developing Home Language(s).  Language, Speech, & Hearing Services in Schools,
Jul2005, Vol. 36 Issue 3, p251, 13p

Pui Fong Kan; Kohnert, Kathyrn.Preschoolers Learning Hmong and English: Lexical-Semantic Skills in L1 and L2.
Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, Apr2005, Vol. 48 Issue 2, p372, 12p, 4 charts, 2 graphs;

Debra Albus, Martha Thurlow, Kristin Liu and John Bielinski. (2005). “Reading Test Performance of English-Language
Learners Using an English Dictionary.” The Journal of Educational Research, 98(4): 245-254.

Stacey J. Lee. (2005). Up Against Whiteness: Race, School, and Immigrant Youth. New York: Teachers College Press.

Vang, C.T. (2005). “Hmong-American Students Still Face Multiple Challenges in Public Schools.” Multicultural
Education 13(1): 27-42.

Zha Blong Xiong, Patricia A. Eliason, Daniel F. Detzner and Michael J. Cleveland. (2005). "Southeast Asian
perceptions of good adolescents and good parents." Journal of Psychology. The Journal of Psychology, 139(2): 159-

Xiong, Zha Blong and Daniel F. Detzner. (2005). "Southeast Asian Fathers’ Experiences with Adolescents: Challenges
and Change" Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 6, 2005

Ceric, Meliha. (2004). Education of Hmong Children in Minnesota: 1975-2004: The Integration of Hmong Immigrants
into American Society. M.A. Thesis, Minnesota State University, Mankato.

Chang, Chou Soobtsheej. (2004). A Hmong and His Story, EdD Dissertation, University of Saint Thomas.

Duffy, John. (2004). “Letters from the Fair City: A rhetorical conception of literacy.” College Composition and
Communication 56(2): 223-250.

Griffin, Lisa Anne. (2004). Immigrant schoolgirl: Making the American dream the Hmong way. PhD Dissertation,
Stanford University.

Landelle, Amy Jane Erkonen. (2004). Motivations, language learning beliefs, and experiences of Hmong and Spanish-
speaking students in the foreign language classroom. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Joanne S. Landt. (2004). Defining Moments: How Three Generations of Hmong People have Incorporated Education
into their Perception of Success. PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Kongming Mouanoutoua. (2004). The Usefulness of the Self-Directed Search in Determining Career Development for
Hmong College Students. PsyD Dissertation, Alliant International University, Fresno.

Withers, Andrea C. (2004). “Hmong Language and Cultural Maintenance in Merced, California.” Bilingual Research
Journal 28(3): 425-462.

John C. Yang. (2004). An Investigation of Current and Former (Re-Classified) ELL Hmong Students: Factors
Contributing to their Successful Acquisition of English. PhD Dissertation, Marquette University.

Withers, Andrea C. (2003). Hmong language and cultural maintenance in Merced City, California. MA Thesis, San
Jose State University.

Allen, Margaret (Peg), Matthew, Susan, and Mary Jo Boland. (2004). “Working with Immigrant and Refugee
Populations: Issues and Hmong Case Study.” Library Trends 53(2): 301-328.

Landelle, Amy Jane Erkonen. (2004). Motivations, language learning beliefs, and experiences of Hmong and Spanish-
speaking students in the foreign language classroom. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Lie, Gwat-Yong, Pahoua Yang, Kalyani Rai and Pa Y. Vang. (2004). “Hmong Children and Families.” In Culturally
Competent Practice With Immigrant and Refugee Children and Families, editor, Rowena Fong. New York: The
Guilford Press, 122-145.

Ryan Sherman. (2004). Perceptions and Knowledge that 7th and 8th Grade Hmong Students have of School
Guidance Departments, M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. This thesis may also be accessed online at: http:

Robert T. Teranishi. (2004). “Yellow and Brown: Emerging Asian American Immigrant Populations and Residential
Segregation.” Equity and Excellence in Education 37:255-263.

Vang, Christopher T. (2004). "Hmong-American K-12 Students and the Academic Skills needed for a College
Education: A Review of the Existing Literature and Suggestions for Future Research." Hmong Studies Journal,
Volume 5.

Vang, Halee and Manuel T. Barrera. "Hmong Parents’ Perceptions on Instructional Strategies for Educating their
Children with Disabilities." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 5.

Yang, Piaj. (2004). Hmong Juvenile Delinquency: A Qualitative Investigation of Parents’ and Adolescents’ Perception
of Parental Involvement and Risk Factors. M.A. Thesis, Minnesota State University, Mankato.

Yer J. Thao. (2003). “Empowering Mong Students: Hmong and School Factors.” The Urban Review 35(1): 25-42.

Fennelly, Katherine and Nicole Palasz. (2003). “English Language Proficiency of Immigrants and Refugees in the
Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.” International Migration 41(5): 93-125.

Schulze, Janet Marie. (2003). Voices of transition: The educational experiences of Hmong high school students. PhD
Dissertation, Harvard University.

Khatharya Um. (2003). “A Dream Denied: Educational Experiences of Southeast Asian American Youth Issues and
Recommendations.” Research Paper published by Southeast Asian Resource Action Center, Washington D.C. 23

Chang, John Paokong and Jerry Rosiek. (2003). “Anti-Colonialist Antinomies in a Biology Lesson: A Case Study of
Cultural Conflict in a Science Classroom.” Curriculum Inquiry 33 (3), 251-290.

Hagstrom, Deirdre Abbey. (2003). Gifted Hmong Girls and Higher Education: Can They Maintain Traditional Hmong
Values as They Prepare for Non-Traditional Careers? M.A. Thesis, Minnesota State University, Mankato.

Hanson, Bella M. (2003). The Use of Literacy Events in the Workplace by Refugees of Hmong Heritage Coming from
an Oral Tradition. PhD Dissertation, Capella University.

Powers, Steven R. (2003). Asian American Students’ Experiences of Secondary United States History Course Work.
M.A. Thesis, Hamline University.

Root, Steven., Rudawski, Anthony., Taylor, Matthew., and Ronald Rochon. (2003). “Attrition of Hmong Students in
Teacher Education Programs.” Bilingual Research Journal 24(1): 137-141.

Swartz, Teresa., Lee, Jennifer C., and Jeylan T. Mortimer. (2003). “Achievements of First-Generation Hmong Youth:
Findings from the Youth Development Study.” CURA Reporter, University of Minnesota, Spring 2003, 15-21.

Crevier, Melissa. (2002). Hmong Students at UW-Stout: Factors Influencing Attendance and Retention in a Post
Secondary Institution. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Garrity, C.A. (2002). Hmong Women in a Non-Traditional College: The Replacement of Fragmented Backgrounds with
American Individualism. Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Saint Thomas (St. Paul, MN).

AU: Lee, SJ TI: Learning "America" - Hmong American high school students SO: EDUCATION AND URBAN SOCIETY
BP: 233 EP: 246 PG: 14 PY: 2002 PD: FEB VL: 34 IS: 2

Thao, Jeff Yer. (2002). The Voices of Mong Elders: Living, Knowing, Teaching and Learning Within an Oral Tradition.
PhD Dissertation, Claremont Graduate University (California).

Thao, Paoze. (2002). “The Current State of Hmong Students in California.” Report for the Office of the Secretary for
Education, State of California.

Wathum-Ocama John C. and Susan Rose. (2002). “Hmong Immigrants Views on the Education of their Deaf and Hard
of Hearing Children.” American Annals of the Deaf 147(3): 44-53.

AU: Lee, SJ TI: More than "model minorities" or "delinquents": A look at Hmong American high school students SO:

Li, Shi (2001). Hmong Students’ Personal Adjustment in American Culture, Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-

Lor, P. (2001). Blueprint for college success: Key life experiences contributing to Hmong university students'
matriculation and graduation from college, PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Mueller, M.A. (2001). A study into the lives of eight academically successful Hmong female high school students. EdD

Thomas, E.K. (2001). 'Middle' generation Hmong students' perceptions of their college experiences at the University
of Montana: A phenomenological analysis, EdD Dissertation, UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA.

Vang, Christopher Thao (2001). Histories and academic profiles of successful and unsuccessful Hmong secondary
students, PhD Dissertation, University of California, Davis.

Duffy, J.M. (2000). Writing from these Roots: Literacy, Rhetoric and History in a Hmong-American Community. PhD
Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin – Madison.

Duffy, J. (2000). "Never Hold a Pencil: Rhetoric and Relations in the Concept of `Preliteracy.' Written Communication
17(2): 224-257.

Lamker, D.J. (2000). Hmong Proaction Research Project: Effective Interventions and Methods of Instruction to
Develop Reading Comprehension Skills for Hmong Students. MA Thesis, Hamline University.

Park, C.C. (2000). "Learning Style Preferences of Southeast Asian Students." Urban Education 35(3): 245-268.

Thao, Dang (2000). Hmong Parents’ Perceptions Toward their Children’s Education in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Vue, Mana (2000). Perception of Early Marriage and Future Educational Goals Attainment for Hmong Female

Hones, Donald F.; Cha, Cher Shou. (1999). Educating new Americans: Immigrant lives and learning. Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hones, D.F. (1999). “Crises, Continuity, and the Refugee: Educational Narratives of a Hmong Father and His
Children.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 28(2): 166-198.

Hones, D.F. (1999). “Making peace: A narrative study of a bilingual (Hmong) liaison, a school and a community.”
Teachers College Record. 101(1): 106-134.

Jiang, Binbin (1999). Transfer in the academic language development of post-secondary ESL students, EdD
dissertation. California State University, Fresno and University of California - Davis

Lee, Pao (1999). Language maintenance and language shift among second-generation Hmong teenagers, EdD
dissertation. University of San Francisco.

Mason-Chagil G. (1999). Hmong parents' perspectives on the role of schools in raising and educating children in the
United States, PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota.

Preston, Jodi. (1999). An investigation of Hmong students' performance on four standardized cognitive ability tests. M.
S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Soung, Dang. (2000). Hmong Bilingual Education: its effect on Hmong Secondary Students' Math Basic Standards
Test Scores. MA Thesis, Hamline University.

Thao, Paoze. (1999). Mong Education at the crossroads. Lanham. Md.: University Press of America.

Thao, P. (1999). "Mong Linguistic Awareness for Classroom Teachers." In Asian-American Education: Prospects and
Challenges. C.C. Park and M.M. Chi, Editors. Westport, CT: Bergin and Harvey. 237-262.

Theune, J. (1999). Hmong Youth and Gangs: One Teacher’s Response to Violence. MA Thesis, Hamline University.

Vang, Frank Chua (1999). The Availability of Adequate Educational Support Programs for Southeast Asians as
English as Second Language Students in Wausau East High School, Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Wathum-Ocama, John Collins (1999). Attitudes of parents of Hmong deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) students: An
ethnographic study, PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota.

Yang, A.T. (1999). "Hmong-American Students: Challenges and Opportunities." In Asian-American Education:
Prospects and Challenges. C.C. Park and M.M. Chi, Editors. Westport, CT: Bergin and Harvey. 218-236.

Cobb, Jennifer Karen (1998). The relationships among measures of phonemic awareness and language proficiency
assessments for at-risk high school students of three language backgrounds, MA dissertation. California State
University – Fresno.

Duffy, John. (1998, Spring). Roots of a new American literacy: Hmong writing in Laos and the U.S. English Update, p.3.

Gozali-Lee, Edith M; Mueller, Daniel P. (1998). Early school performance of Hmong children in comparative context.
St. Paul. MN: Wilder Research Center.

Heideman, Diane McDanel. (1998). Bookmaking with Hmong second language learners. M.A. thesis, Hamline

Lamb, John Cotton. (1998). Cross-age, paired, interactive tutoring: Personal agency, literate behaviors, and
metacognition of Hmong American fifth graders. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado.

Lo, Xiong A. (1998). Hmong High School Students’ Attitudes and Aspirations Toward Education. MA Thesis, University
of Wisconsin-Stout.

Lor, Song. (1998). Parental Influences and Academic Success of Hmong Adolescent Students: Is there a
Relationship? MA Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Low, Janie Matsumoto; Wong, Pia Lindquist. (1998). "Effects of a Hmong intern on Hmong students." Multicultural
Education, 5(4), 12-16.

McAll, A.L. (1998). “Hmong Paj Ntaub: Using Textile Arts to Teach Young Children about Cultures.” Social Education
62(5): 294-296.

McDaniel, Terry Heideman. (1998). A pastiche of stories: Involving students in collecting, translating, and internet
publishing of family folk tales. M.A. thesis, Hamline University.

O'Reilly, Tim Michael (1998). An investigation of Hmong students' academic success in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, EdD
dissertation. University of Minnesota.

Schulz, Rosemarie (1998). Teaching strategies, beliefs, and behaviors of the Hmong and general education teachers
in the technical college, PhD dissertation. The University of Wisconsin – Madison.

Timm, J.T., Chiang, B., and B.D. Finn. (1998). “Acculturation in the Cognitive Style of Laotian Hmong Students in the
United States.” Equity and Excellence in Education 31(1): 29-35.

Vang, Ka. (1998). The relationship between cultural retention among selected Hmong parents and the academic
achievement of their children. Ed.D. dissertation, University of San Francisco.

Vang, Tou K. (1998). Hmong parents' attitude and perception toward Hmong juvenile delinquency in America. M.S.
thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Xiong, Michael Moua. (1998). Hmong students' attitude toward family life and education. M.S. thesis, University of
Wisconsin, Stout.

Xiong, Youa. (1998). Where they are now: The second follow-up study of the 1992 college-bound Hmong graduates.
M.S. thesis, Universityof Wisconsin, Stout.

Yang, Sou Vanh. (1998). The impact of the home environment on Hmong children's academic performance in the
education system. M.S.W. thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.

Bosher, S. (1997). “Language and cultural identity: A study of Hmong students at the postsecondary level.” TESOL
QUARTERLY. 31(3): 593-603.

Brock, Cynthia H. (1997). Exploring a second language student's literacy learning opportunities: A collaborative case
study analysis, PhD dissertation. Michigan State University.

Getahun, Linde Joveda. (1997). Women in cultural transition: Voices of Hmong mothers in an urban school. Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Hang, MayKao Yangblongsua. (1997) "Growing Up Hmong American: Truancy Policy and Girls." Hmong Studies
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