The Hmong Language

Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD


Carveth, V. (2012). Explorations in the Phonological Reconstruction of Proto-Qiandong-Hmongic Onsets. MA Thesis,
University of Calgary.


Esposito, C.M. (2012). "An acoustic and electroglottographic study of White Hmong tone and phonation." Journal of
Phonetics 40: 466-476.

Esposito, C.M. and S.D. Khan. (2012). "Contrastive breathiness across consonants and vowels; A Comparative
Study of Gujarati and White Hmong." Journal of the International Phonetic Association 42(2): 123-143."


Garellek, M. (2012). "The timing and sequencing of coarticulated non-modal phonation in English and White
Hmong." Journal of Phonetics, 40: 152-161.


Vang, M. (2012). Hmong heritage language learners: A phenomenological approach. PhD Dissertation, University of
Wisconsin-Milwaukee.


Kaiser, E.A. (2011). Sociophonetics of Hmong American English in Minnesota. PhD Dissertation, University of
Minnesota.

Burt, S.M. (2010). The Hmong Language in Wisconsin: Language Shift and Pragmatic Change. Lewiston, NY: Edwin
Mellen Press.

Castro, A. & G. Chawen. 2010. "Phonological innovation among Hmong dialects of Wenshan." Journal of the
Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 3.1:1-39.

Ito, R. (2010). “Accommodation to the Local Majority Norm by Hmong Americans in the Twin Cities,
Minnesota.” American Speech 85(2): 141-162.

Gerner, M. & W. Bisang (2010). “Classifiers declinations in an isolating language: On a rarity in Weining Ahmao.”
Language and Linguistics 11(3), 576-623. Taibei: Academia Sinica.

Ratliff, M. 2010. Hmong-Mien Language History. Canberra: The Australian National University, Pacific Linguistics.

Ratliff, M. (2010). Meaningful Tone: A Study of Tonal Morphology in Compounds, Form Classes and Expressive
Phases in White Hmong. Dekalb, IL: Northern Illinois Press.

Stanford, J.N. (2010). “The Role of Marriage in Linguistic Contact and Variation: Two Hmong Dialects
in Texas.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 14(1): 89-115.

Stanford, J.N. (2010). “Gender, Generations, and Nations: An Experiment in Hmong American
Discourse and Sociophonetics.” Language and Communication 30: 285-296.

Burt, S.M. (2009). “Naming, Re-Naming and Self-Naming Among Hmong-Americans.” Names 57(4): 236-245.

Gerner, M. (2009). “Deictic features of demonstratives: A typological survey with special reference to the Miao
group.” Canadian Journal of Linguistics, 54(1), 43-90.

Gerner, M. & W. Bisang (2009). “Inflectional Classifiers in Weining Ahmao: Mirror of the History of a people.” Folia
Linguistica Historica 30(1/2), 183-218. Societas Linguistica Europaea.

Ratliff, M. 2009. “Loanwords in White Hmong”. In Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook
edited by Martin Haspelmath and Uri Tadmor, 638–658. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ratliff, M. 2009. “White Hmong vocabulary”. In World Loanword Database, edited by Martin Haspelmath and Uri
Tadmor, 1,292 entries. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library.

Gerner, M. & W. Bisang (2008). “Inflectional Speaker-Role Classifiers in Weining Ahmao.” Journal of Pragmatics, 40
(4), 719-732.

Jarkey, N. (2006). “Complement Clause Types and Complementation Strategy in White Hmong.” In Robert M.W.
Dixon and A.I.U. Aikhenval’d, Eds. Complementation: A Cross-Linguistic Typology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Thomas Amis Lyman. (2004). "A Note on the Ethno-Semantics of Proverb Usage in Mong Njua (Green Hmong)." In
Tapp, N., Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm
Books, pp. 167-178.

Jarkey, Nerida. (2004). “Process and Goal in White Hmong.” In The Hmong of Australia: Culture and Diaspora. Eds.
Nicholas Tapp and Gary Yia Lee. Canberra, Australia: Pandanus Books, Research School of Pacific and Asian
Studies, The Australian National University, 175-190.

Barbara Niederer. (2004). "Pa-hng and the Classification of the Hmong-Mien Languages." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J.,
Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 129-146.

Martha Ratliff. (2004). "Vocabulary of Environment and Subsistence in the Hmong-Mien Protolanguage." In Tapp, N.,
Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 147-
166.

Kao-Ly Yang. (2004). "Problems in the Interpretation of Hmong Surnames." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J., Culas, C., and
Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 179-216.

Thoj, L. (2000). English-Hmong Dictionary//Tsevlu Aakiv Hmoob. San Diego, CA: Windsor Associates.

Thao, Paoze. (1999). Mong Education at the crossroads. Lanham. Md.: University Press of America.

Thao, P. (1999). "Mong Linguistic Awareness for Classroom Teachers." In Asian-American Education: Prospects and
Challenges. C.C. Park and M.M. Chi, Editors. Westport, CT: Bergin and Harvey. 237-262.

Vaj, K. and C. Thoj. (1998). Tsevlu Hmoob (Hmong Dictionary). San Diego, CA: Windsor Associates.

Jaisser, Annie & Ratliff, Martha. (1995). Hmong for beginners . Berkeley: Centers for South and Southeast Asia
Studies, University of California at Berkeley. (text and audio cassette)

Bisang, W. (1993). “Classifiers, Quantifiers, and Class Nouns in Hmong.” Studies in Language 17, no. 1: 1-51.

Feng, P.Z. (1993). Hmong-Chinese Dictionary. Publisher Not Available.

Riddle, E.M. (1993). “The Relative Marker Uas in Hmong.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 16 (Fall 1993): 57-
68.

Xiong, L., Xiong, W.J. and N.L.Xiong, Comps, eds. (1992). English-Mong Dictionary. Milwaukee: Xiong Partnership
Productions.

Blake, J. and D. Yang. (1992). Hmong for English Speakers (Level 1). Minneapolis, World Bridge Associates.

Bright, W. (1992). “Hmong Njua – Syntactic Analysis of a Spoken Language Using Data-Processing Equipment and
Comparative Linguistic Descriptions of Southeast Asian Languages.” Language. 68(1): 165-171.

McKibben, B. (1992). English-White Hmong Dictionary. Provo, UT: Brian McKibben.

Ratliff, M. (1992). Meaningful Tone: A Study of Tonal Morphology In Compounds, Form Classes, and Expressive
Phrases in White Hmong. Dekalb: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University.

Jarkey, N. (1991). Serial Verbs in White Hmong: A Functional Approach. PhD Dissertation, University of Sydney.

Li, C. (1991). “The Aspectual System of Hmong.” Studies in Language 15: 25-58.

Melton, J.B. (1991). An Analysis of Hmong Noun Classifiers. Master’s Thesis, San Diego State University.

Ratliff, M. (1991). “Cov, the Underspecified Noun and Syntactic Flexibility in Hmong.” Journal of the American
Oriental Society 111: 694-703. Wells, B.B. (1991). The Effect of Speaking the Tonal Language Hmong on
Kindergarten Children’s Singing Accuracy.” Master’s Thesis, University of St. Thomas.

Jaisser, A. (1990). “Delivering an Introduction to Psycho-Collocations with SIAB in White Hmong.” Linguistics of the
Tibeto-Burman Area 13 (Spring 1990): 159-178.

Lyman, T. A. (1990). “The Mong (Green Miao) and Their Language: A Brief Compendium.” The Journal of the Siam
Society 78: 63-65.

Smalley, W.A., Vang, C.K. and G.Y. Yang. (1990). Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong
Messianic Script. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Vang, C.K., Yang, G.Y., and W.M. Smalley. (1990). The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong ‘Mother of Writing’//Keeb
Kwm Soob Lwj Yaj: “Hmoob Niam Ntawv”. Southeast Asian Refugee Occasional Papers, Number 9. Minneapolis, MN:
Southeast Asian Refugee Studies, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, University of Minnesota.

Li, C. (1989). “The Origin and Function of Switch Reference in Green Hmong.” In Language Change: Contributions
to the Study of Its Causes, edited by L.E. Breivik and E.H. Jahr, 115-129. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1989.

Riddle, E.M. (1989). “Serial Verbs and Propositions in White Hmong.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 12 (Fall
1989): 1-13.

Riddle, E.M. (1989). “Parataxis in White Hmong.” Working Papers in Linguistics 39 (December 1990): 65-76.

Stolurow, L.M. (1989). Primary Word Book: English-Hmong. 2nd Edition. Iowa City, Iowa: The Center for Educational
Experimentation, Development and Evaluation, University of Iowa.

Te, H.D. (1988). English-Hmong Bilingual Glossary of School Terminology. Rancho Cordova, CA: Southeast Asia
Community Resource Center, Folsom Cordova Unified School District.

Fuller, J.W. (1987). “Topic Markers in Hmong.” Linguistics of the Tibeto Burman Area 10 (Fall 1987): 113-127.

Huffman, M.K. (1987). “Measures of Phonation Type in Hmong.” Acoustical Society of America. Journal 81 (February
1987): 495-504.

Jaisser, A. (1987). “Hmong Classifiers: A Problem Set.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 10 (Fall 1987): 169-
176.

Jarkey, N. (1987). “An Investigation of Two Alveolar Stop Consonants in White Hmong.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-
Burman Area 13 (Spring 1987): 159-178.

Johns, B and D. Strecker (1987). “Lexical and Phonological Sources of Hmong Elaborate Expressions.” Linguistics of
the Tibeto-Burman Area 10 (fall 1987): 106-112.

Lyman, T.A. (1987). “The Word Nzi in Green Hmong (Miao).” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 10 (Fall 1987):
142-143.

Ratliff, M. (1987). “Tone Sandhi Compounding in White Hmong.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 10 (Fall
1987): 71-105.

Strecker, D. (1987). “The Hmong-Mien Languages.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 10 (Fall 1987): 1-11.

Strecker, D. (1987). “Some Comments on Benedict’s `Miao-Yiao’ Enigma: Addendum.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-
Burman Area 10 (Fall 1987): 22-42.

Downing, B.T. (1986). “Language Issues.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing and A.S.
Deinard, 187-193.

Jaisser, A.C. (1986). “The Morpheme ‘Kom’: A First Analysis and Look at Embedding in Hmong.” In The Hmong in
Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 245-260.

Johns, B. (1986). "An Introduction to White Hmong Sung Poetry." In The Hmong World, Editors, Brenda Johns and
David Strecker, New Haven, CT: Council on Southeast Asia Studies, pp. 5-11.

Lee. G.Y. (1986). "White Hmong Kinship Terminology and Structure." In The Hmong World, Editors, Brenda Johns
and David Strecker, New Haven, CT: Council on Southeast Asia Studies, pp. 12-32.

Owensby, L. (1986). “Verb Serialization in Hmong.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing
and A.S. Deinard, 237-43.

Ratliff, M. (1986). “An Analysis of Some Tonally Diffferentiated Doublets in White Hmong (Miao).” Linguistics of the
Tibeto-Burman Area 9 (Fall 1986): 1-33.

Ratliff, M. (1986). The Morphological Functions of Tone in White Hmong. PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago.

Ratliff, M. (1986). “Two-Word Expressives in White Hmong.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T.
Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 219-236.

Downing, B.T. and J.W. Fuller (1985). “Hmong Names: Change and Variation in a Bilingual Context.” Minnesota
Papers in Linguistics and Philosophy of Language 10 (April 1985): 39-50.

Fuller, J.W. (1985). “On the Passive Construction in Hmong.” Minnesota Papers in Linguistics and Philosophy of
Language 10 (April 1985): 51-65.

Fuller, J.W. (1985). “Zero Anaphora and Topic Prominence in Hmong.” In the Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L.
Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 261-277.

Fuller, Judith Wheaton (1985). Topic And Comment In Hmong (Southeast Asia, China, Thailand, Vietnam), PhD
dissertation. University of Minnesota.

Huffman, M.K. (1985). “Measures of Phonation Type in Hmong.” University of California Working Papers in Phonetics
61 (July 1985): 1-25. Los Angeles: University of California.

Pederson, E.W. (1985). Intensive and Expressive Language in White Hmong (Hmoob Dawb). Master’s Thesis,
University of California, Berkeley.

Smalley, W.A. (1985). “Adaptive Language Strategies of the Hmong: From Asian Mountains to American Ghettoes.”
Language Sciences 7 (October 1985): 241-269.

Vang, K., Vang, H.T., Simmons, C., Tashima, N., and D.T. Ramirez. (1985). Hmong Concepts of Illness and Healing
with a Hmong/English Glossary. Prepared for the Office of Refugee Resettlement, U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, Washington D.C. Fresno, CA: Nationalities Service of Central California.

Jaisser, A.C. (1984). Complementation in Hmong. Master’s Thesis, San Diego State University.

Bessac, S. (1982). The Significance of a New Script for the Hmong. (Unpublished).

Catlin, Amy (1982). Speech Surrogate Systems of the Hmong: From Singing Voices to Talking Reeds. In The Hmong
in the West: Observations and Reports. Bruce T. Downing and Douglas P. Olney, eds. pp. 170-199. Minneapolis:
Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota.

Clark, M. (1982). Some Auxiliary Verbs in Hmong. In the Hmong in the West: Observations and Reports. Bruce T.
Downing and Douglas P. Olney eds., pp. 125-141. Minneapolis: Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, University of
Minnesota.

Derrick-Mescua, M. et al. (1982). Some Secret Languages of the Hmong. In the Hmong in the West: Observations
and Reports. B.T. Downing and D.P. Olney, eds. pp. 142-159. Minneapolis: Center for Urban and Regional Affairs,
University of Minnesota.

Donnelly, N.D. (1982). Preliminary Study of Noun Classifier Use in the Hmong Language. Department of
Anthropology, University of Washington (Unpublished).

Johns, B. and D. Strecker (1982). Aesthetic Language in White Hmong. In the Hmong in the West: Observations and
Reports. B.T. Downing and D.P. Olney, eds., pp. 160-169. Minneapolis: Center for Urban and Regional Affairs,
University of Minnesota.

Guthrie, S. (1981). Some Observations on Language Universals and Promononialization in English and Hmong.
(Unpublished).

Shimizu, M. (1981). Shimizu Illustrated Dictionary: English-Hmong. Hopkins, MN: St. Jerome’s Center.

Strecker, D. (1981). Classification of Hmongic Languages. (Unpublished).

Thao, C. Translator and Adaptor (1981). English-Hmong Phrasebook with Useful Wordlist. Washington D.C.: Center
for Applied Linguistics.

Yang, D. (1981). Notions sur la langue Hmong. (Unpublished).

Clark, M. (1980). Source Phrases in White Hmong (Laos). Working Papers in Linguistics, University of Hawaii at
Manoa 12(2): 1-49.

Clark, M. (1980). Derivation between Goal and Source Verbs in Hmong. Working Papers in Linguistics, University of
Hawaii at Manoa 12(2): 51-59.

Locketz, L., Martin, R. and M. Yang. (1980). Hmong-English Phrasebook for Americans. St. Paul: St. Paul Public
Schools.

Vang, T.F. (1980). Lao Hmong Medical Terms. Governors Center for Asian Assistance, State of Illinois.

Yang, D. (1980). Dictionnaire Francaise-Hmong Blanc. Paris: Comite National d’Entraide.

Clark, M. (1979). Coverbs: Evidence for the Derivation of Prepositions from Verbs, New Evidence from Hmong.
Working Papers in Linguistics, University of Hawaii at Manoa 11(2).

Clark, M. (1979). Synchronically Derived Prepositions in Diachronic Perspective: Some Evidence from Hmong.
Unpublished paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics,
Paris, October 19-21.

English-Hmong Phrasebook (1979). Unpublished.

Heimbach, E.E. (1979). White Hmong-English Dictionary. Southeast Asia Program Data Paper No. 75. Ithaca, New
York: Cornell University.

Lyman, T.A. (1979). Grammar of Mong Njua (Green Miao): A Descriptive Linguistic Study. Published by the Author.
Wang, F. (1979). The Comparison of Initials and Finals of Miao Dialects. The Research Institute of Nationalities,
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1978). Note on the Name “Green Miao.” Nachrichten 123:82-87.

Mottin, J. (1978). Elements de Grammaire Hmong Blanc. Bangkok: Don Bosco Press.

Chang, B.S. and K.Chang. (1976). The Prenasalized Stop Initials of Miao-Yiao, Tibeto-Burman, and Chinese: A
Result of Diffusion or Evidence of a Genetic Relationship? Academic Sinica: Bulletin of the Institute of History and
Philology 47(3): 467-502.

Chang, K. (1976). Proto-Miao Initials. Academia Sinica: Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology 47(2): 155-
218.

Smalley, W.A. (1976). The Problems of Consonants and Tone: Hmong (Meo, Miao). In Phonemes and Orthography:
Language Planning in Ten Minority Languages of Thailand, William Smalley, ed. pp. 85-123. Canberra, Australia:
Linguistic Circle of Canberra.

Smalley, W.A. (1976). Review of Thomas A. Lyman’s Dictionary of Mong Njua, a Miao (Meo) Language of Southeast
Asia. Linguistics 174: 107-112.

Smalley, W.A. ed. (1976). Phonemes and Orthography: Language Planning in Ten Minority Languages of Thailand.
Pacific Linguistic Series C, No. 43. Canberra, Australia: Linguistic Circle of Canberra.

Lyman, T.A. Dictionary of Mong Njua, A Miao (Meo) Language of Southeast Asia. The Hague: Mouton.

Chang, K. (1973). The Reconstruction of Proto-Miao-Yao Tones. Academia Sinica: Bulletin of the Institute of History
and Philology 44(4): 541-628.

Matisoff, J.A. (1973). Tonogenesis in Southeast Asia. In Cosononant Types and Tone. Larry Hyman, ed., pp. 71-95.
Southern California Occasional Papers in Linguistics, No. 1. Los Angeles: Linguistics Program, University of
Southern California.

Benedict, Paul K. (1972). Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus. Cambridge, England: The University Press. [495 B434]

Haudricourt, A.G. (1972). Two-Way and Three-Way Splitting of Tonal Systems in some Far Eastern Languages. In
Tai Phonetics and Phonology. J.G. Harris and R.B. Noss, ed. pp. 58-86. Bangkok: Central Institute of English
Language.

Purnell, H.C. (1972) Toward Contrastive Analysis Between Thai and Hill Tribe Languages. In Tai Phonetics and
Phonology J.G Harris and R.B. Noss, ed. pp. 113-129. Bangkok: Central Institute of English Language.

Purnell, H.C. ed. (1972). Miao and Yao Linguistic Studies: Selected Articles in Chinese, translated by C. Yu-hung
and C. Kwo-Ray. Southeast Asia Program Data Paper No. 88. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University.

Smalley, W.A. (1972). Problems in Writing Thailand Minority Languages in Thai Script. In Tai Phonetics and
Phonology, J.G. Harris and R.B. Noss, eds., pp. 131-136. Bangkok: Central Institute of English.

Haudricourt, A.G. (1971). Les langues Karen et les langues Miao-Yiao. Asie du Sud-Est et Monde Insulinden, Paris 2
(4): 25-52.

Kwan, J.C. (1971). C’hing Chiang Miao Phonology. Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies (new series) 9: 289-305.

Oshima, S. (1971). Preliminary Study on a Black Miao Dialect: Phonology. The Annual Report on Cultural Science
28: 27-48.

Lyman, T. (1970). English-Meo Pocket Dictionary. Bangkok, Thailand: The German Cultural Institute.

Purnell, H.C. (1970). Toward a Reconstruction of Proto-Miao-Yao. PhD Dissertation, Cornell University.

Deaton, Brady, and Thomas A. Lyman (1969). Green Miao (Meo) Agricultural Terms. Asia Aakhanee: Southeast
Asian Survey 1(3):42-47.

Lyman, T.A. The Particle ‘le’ in Green Miao. Asia Aakhanee: Southeast Asian Survey 1(1): 1-14.

Lyman, T.A. (1969). Green Miao (Meo) Proverbs. Asia Aakhanee: Southeast Asian Survey 192): 30-32.

Worthington, H.R. (1969). A Sampling of Loan Words in Green Miao. Asia Aakhanee: Southeast Asian Survey 1(2):
15-17.

Vidal, Jules (1969) Noms vernaculaires de plantes (Lao, Meo, Kha) en usage au Laos. Bulletin de l’Ecole francaise d’
Extreme Orient 49(2):560-62.

Lombard, S.J. comp. (1968). Yao-English Dictionary. Southeast Asia Program Data Paper No. 69. Ithaca, New York:
Cornell University.

Chang, K. (1967). National Languages. In Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol. 2, Linguistics in East Asia and
Southeast Asia, Thomas Sebeok, ed. pp. 151-176. The Hague: Mouton.

Downer, G.B. (1967). Tone Change and Tone Shift in White Miao. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African
Studies, University of London 30: 589-599.

Moody, W. (1967). List of Irregularities of Coorespondence Existing Between Blue and White Meo Dialects, with texts
in Blue and White Meo (Unpublished).

Chang, K. (1966). A Comparative Study of the Yao Tone System. Language 42(2): 303-310.

Haudricourt, A.G. (1966). The Limits and Connections of Austroasiatic in the Northeast. In Studies in Comparative
Austroasiatic Linguistics, N.H. Zide, ed. pp. 44-56. The Hague: Mouton. Kwan, J.C. (1966). A Phonology of a Black
Miao Dialect. University of Washington.

Nhan, D. (1966). Lai Chau Expands Teaching of Meo Language and Trains More National Minority Teachers. Nhan
Dan December 12, 1966. Translated in Translations on North Vietnam, no. 85 (JPRS: 39,478). 1966-67. Washington
D.C.: Joint Publications Research Service.

Whitelock, D. (1966). White Meo Language Lessons. Chiang Mai: Overseas Missionary Fellowship.

Zide, N.H. ed. (1966). Studies in Comparative Austroasiatic Linguistics. (Indo-Iranian Monographs, Vol. 5) The
Hague: Mouton.

Lyman, T.A. (1965). Excerpts from a Grammar of Green Miao and Green Miao Vocabulary. (Unpublished).

Nguyen, K.T. (1965). Problems in Minority Languages and Writing. Translations of Political and Sociological
Information on North Vietnam. JPRS: 28,472, January 8, 1965, pp. 31-40.

Purnell, H.C. (1965). Phonology of a Yao Dialect Spoken in the Province of Chiengrai Thailand. Unpub M.A. Thesis.
Hartford Seminary Foundation.

Smalley, W.A. (1965). Hmong Language Notes. Unpublished.

Smalley, W.A. (1965). Notes on Hmong Script Development. Unpublished.

Bertrais, Yves (1964). Dictionnaire Hmong (meo blanc)-francais. Vientiane: Mission Catholique. [495.17 fB462]

Bac, Q. (1963). Script for the Meo Minority. Vietnam 10: 18-19.

Downer, G.B. (1963). Chinese, Thai, and Miao-Yiao. In Linguistic Comparison in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. H.L.
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Chinese Linguistic Committee (1958). Hmongb-Shuad jianming cidian Chuanqiandian fangyan. (Miao Chinese
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Chinese Linguistic Committee (1958). Hmub-diel jianming cidian Qiandon fangyan. (Miao-Chinese Dictionary of the
East Kweichow Dialect).

Kroeber, Alfred L. (1958). Miao and Chinese Kin Logic. Academia Sinica: Bulletin of the Institute of History and
Philology 29:641-645.

Ruey Yih-Fu (1958). Terminological Structure of the Miao Kinship System. Academia Sinica: Bulletin of the Institute
of History and Philology 29:613-639.

Chang, K. (1957). The Phonemic System of the Yi Miao Dialect. Academic Sinica: Bulletin of the Institute of History
and Philology 29(1): 11-19.

Ma, H.L. (1957). A Script for the Miao People. China Reconstructs 6/7: 28-30.

Shafter, R. (1957). Bibliography of Sino-Tibetan Languages. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

Shafer, R. (1955). Classification of the Sino-Tibetan Languages. Word 11: 94-111.

Shafer, R. (1955). Classification of the Sino-Tibetan Languages. Word 11: 94-111.

Haudricourt, A.G. (1954). Introduction a la phonologie historique des langes miao-yao. Bulletin de l'Ecole Francaise
de l'Extreme-Orient 44:555-576.

Ruey Yih-Fu (1954). On the Origin and Type of Kinship Terminology among the Miao Tribe in the Region of the
Sources of the Yungning River. Bulletin of the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, National Taiwan
University 3:1-13 (in Chinese with English summary).

Barney, G. Linwood, and William A. Smalley (1953) (a). Report of Second Conference on Problems in Meo Phonemic
Structure. (unpublished)

Barney, G. Linwood, and William A. Smalley (1953) (b). Third Report on Meo: Orthography and Grammer.
(unpublished)

Chang, K. (1953). On the Tone System of the Miao-Yiao Languages. Language 29(3): 374-378.

Greenberg, J.H. (1953). Historical Linguistics and Unwritten Languages. In Anthropology Today, A.L. Kroeber, ed.
pp. 265-286. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1952

Barney, G. Linwood, and William A. Smalley (1952). Report of Conference on Problems in Meo Phonemic Structure.
(unpublished)

Truax (1950). Vocabularies of Tribes in Kweichow, China. (Unpublished).

Benedict, Paul K. (1947). Languages and Literatures of Indochina. Far Eastern Quarterly 6:379-389.

Li, F.K. (1939). Languages and Dialects. The Chinese Yearbook, Shanghai 1938/39:47-48.

Wong, S.L. (1939). Phonetics and Phonology of the Yao Language: Description of the Yao-ling Dialect. Ling-nan
Science Journal 18: 425-455.

Graham, D.C. (1938). Vocabulary of the Ch'wan Miao. Journal of the West China Border Research Society 10:53-
145.

Wen, Y. (1938). The Influence of Liquids upon the Dissolution of Initial Consonant Groups in the Indo-Sinic Family.
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