Hmong Gender Relations and GLBT Issues

Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD

Lemoine, J. (2012). "Commentary: Gender-based Violence among the (H)mong." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13

Ngo, B.. (2012). "The Importance of Family for a Gay Hmong American Man: Complicating Discourses of
'Coming Out'."  Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13(1).

Xiong, N. and G. Xiong. (2012). "Til Divorce Do Us Apart: Sex, State of Residence, and Divorce among Hmong  
Americans." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13(2).

Ngo B. and J. Leet-Otley. (2011). “Discourses about Gender Among Hmong American Policymakers: Conflicting
Views about Gender, Culture and Hmong Youth.” Journal of Language, Identity and Education 10(2): 99-118.

Tabrizi, P. (2011). The Role of Social and Cultural Factors in the Degree Completion of Female Hmong College
Students. Ph.D Dissertation, Capella University.

Yang, A.A. and T.L. Morris. (2011). “Hmong American Women Crossing Borders in Nursing Education: Two Case
Studies.” Journal of Nursing Education 50(5): 275-277.

Gonzalo, P.X. (2010). “Growing up Hmong in Laos and America: Two Generations of Women through
My Eyes.” Amerasia Journal 36(1): 56-104.

Khang, M.S. (2010). Hmong Traditional Roles and the Pursuit of Higher Education for Married Hmong
American Women. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Stanford, J.N. (2010). “Gender, Generations, and Nations: An Experiment in Hmong American
Discourse and Sociophonetics.” Language and Communication 30: 285-296.

Stanford, J.N. (2010). “The Role of Marriage in Linguistic Contact and Variation: Two Hmong Dialects
in Texas.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 14(1): 89-115.

Vang, M.N. (2010). The Good Wife: A Study of Hmong American Women’s Transient Status and their
experiences in the Formal Hmong Marriage and Divorce Process. M.A. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-

Boulden, W.T. (2009). “Gay Hmong: A Multifacted Clash of Cultures.” Journal of Gay and Lesbian
Social Services 21(2): 134-150.

Lee, R.M., Jung, K.R., Su, J.C., Tran, A. and N.F. Bahrassa. (2009).
“The Family Life and Adjustment of Hmong American Sons and Daughters.” Sex Roles 60: 549-558.

Lee, P. (2009). Racial Assimilation and Popular Culture: Hmong Youth (Sub)cultures and the
Persistance of the Color Line. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Mouavangsou, C. (2009). Traditional Hmong Marriage Ceremony Values and Practices: Influence
and Change as a Result of Immigration. PhD Dissertation, Alliant International University, Fresno.

Long, L.L. (2008). “Contemporary Women’s Roles through Hmong, Vietnamese, and American
Eyes.” Frontiers 29(1): 1-36.

Rhodes, P.F.Y. (2008). Intimate Partner Violence among Hmong American Men and
Women. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Yang, P.K. (2008). A Phenomenological Study of the Coming Out Experiences of Gay and Lesbian Hmong. PhD
Dissertation, University of Minnesota.  

Homma, Y. and E. Saewyc. (2007). “The Emotional Well-Being of Asian-American Sexual Minority Youth in
School.” Journal of LGBT Health Research 3(1): 67-78.

Edinburgh, L., Saewyc, E., Thao, T. and C. Levitt. (2006).   “Sexual exploitation of very young Hmong girls.”
Journal of Adolescent Health 39(1): 111-118.

Burt, S.M. (2005). “How to Get Rid of Unwanted Suitors: Advice from Hmong-American Women of Two
Generations.” Journal of Politeness Research 1:219-236.

Cha, Dia. (2005). "Hmong and Lao Refugee Women: Reflections of a Hmong-American Woman Anthropologist"
Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 6, 2005

Lee, Stacey J. (2005). “Learning about Race, Learning about “America”: Hmong American High School Students.
In Lois Weis and Michelle Fine (Editors) Beyond Silenced Voices: Class, Race, and Gender in United States
Schools. Albany: State University of New York Press.  

Stacey J. Lee. (2005). Up Against Whiteness: Race, School, and Immigrant Youth. New York: Teachers College

Griffin, Lisa Anne. (2004). Immigrant schoolgirl: Making the American dream the Hmong way. PhD Dissertation,
Stanford University.

Julian, Roberta. (2004. "Hmong Transnational Identity: the Gendering of Contested Discourses." Hmong Studies
Journal, Volume 5.

Lee, Stacey J. (2004). “Hmong American Masculinities: Creating New Identities in the United States.” In
Adolescent Boys: Exploring Diverse Cultures of Boyhood. Editors: Niobe Way and Judy Y. Chu. New York and
London: New York University Press, pp. 13-30.

Symonds, Patricia V. (2004). Calling in the Soul: Gender and the Cycle of Life in a Hmong Village. Seattle and
London: University of Washington Press.

Cooper, Robert. (2004). "Rape: Perceptions and Processes of Hmong Customary Law." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J.,
Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 421-440.

Sucheng Chan. (2003). “Scarred, yet Undefeated: Hmong and Cambodian Women and Girls in the United
States.” In Asian/Pacific Islander American Women: A Historical Anthology, editors Shirley Hune and Gail
Nomorura. New York: New York University Press, pp. 253-267.

Scott, Cheryl Lynn. (2002). Understanding Hmong gang rape and forced prostitution: A victim's perspective. PhD
Dissertation, Alliant International University, Fresno.

Kundstadter, Peter. (2004). "Hmong Marriage Patterns in Thailand in Relation to Social Change." In Tapp, N.,
Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp.

Tamara L. Kaiser. (2003). “Achieving Shared Meaning in Cross-Cultural Dialogue: Understanding a Hmong
Family’s Response to Marital Violence.” Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work 12(3): 29-54.

Mymee Her, and Chue Pao Heu. (2003). "Traditional Hmong Concepts of Wife Beating." In Culhane-Pera, K.E. et.
al. Editors. Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case Stories of Hmong Families and Western Providers.
Nashville: Vanderbilt Press, pp. 224-233.

Pacyinz Lyfoung. (2003). "Changing Gender Roles and Domestic Violence in the Hmong Community: A Feminist
Perspective." In Culhane-Pera, K.E. et. al. Editors. Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case Stories of Hmong
Families and Western Providers. Nashville: Vanderbilt Press, pp. 234-238.

Hagstrom, Deirdre Abbey. (2003). Gifted Hmong Girls and Higher Education: Can They Maintain Traditional
Hmong Values as They Prepare for Non-Traditional Careers? M.A. Thesis, Minnesota State University, Mankato.

Wong, Chau Ying. (2003). Participation and Empowerment: An Ethnography of Miao Women in Rural China. PhD
Thesis, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

Yang, Manee. (2003). A Qualitative Study Examining the Effects of Polygyny on Hmong Individuals Who Had
Been Raised in Polygynous Households. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Cohen, James R. (2002). “Building a Bridge: Lessons Learned from Family Mediation Training for the Hmong
Community of Minnesota.” Family Court Review 40(3): 338-349.

Garrity, C.A. (2002). Hmong Women in a Non-Traditional College: The Replacement of Fragmented Backgrounds
with American Individualism. Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Saint Thomas (St. Paul, MN).

Foo, Lora Jo. (2002). “Hmong Women in the U.S.: Changing a Patriarchal Culture.” In Asian American Women:
Issues, Concerns, and Responsive Human and Civil Rights Advocacy. Ed. Lora Jo Foo. New York: The Ford
Foundation, pp. 145-161.

Lo, Kaying. (2002). Across the Ocean: The Impact of Immigration on Hmong Women. M.S. Thesis, University of

Ngo, Bic. (2002). “Contesting ‘Culture’: The Perspectives of Hmong American Female Students on Early
Marriage.” Anthropology and Education Quarterly 33(2): 163-188.

Rice, P.L. (2002). “Gender, Sexuality, and Marriage among Hmong Youth in Australia.” From Coming of Age in
South and Southeast Asia: Youth, Courtship and Sexuality, eds. L. Manderson and P. Liamputtong. Richmond,
British Columbia, Canada: Curzon, pp. 249-265.

Yoshihama, Mieko. and Carr, E. Summerson. (2002). “Community Participation Reconsidered: Feminist
Participatory Action Research with Hmong Women.” Journal of Community Practice 10(4): 85-103.

Ly, C. (2001). “The conflict between law and culture: The case of the Hmong in America.” Wisconsin Law Review.
2: 471-499.

Spring, M.A. (2001). Reproductive Health and Fertility of Hmong Immigrants in Minnesota. PhD Dissertation,
University of Minnesota.

Tanjasiri, S.P. et. al. (2001). “Breast cancer screening among Hmong women in California.” Journal of Cancer
Education. 16(1): 50-54.

Truong, T.T. (2001). Hmong and Vietnamese women's perception of domestic violence: An exploratory study. MA
Thesis, California State University, Fresno.

Yang, Nou. (2001). The Bicultural Competency of Hmong Adolescent Girls: Negotiating Gender Messages in the
Home Context. MA Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Rice, P.L. (2000). “Death in birth: The cultural construction of stillbirth, neonatal death, and maternal death
among Hmong women in Australia.” Omega-Journal of Death and Dying. 41(1): 39-57.

Rice, P.L. (2000). Hmong Women and Reproduction. Westport, CT: Bergin and Harvey.

Rice, P.L. (2000). “Nyo dua hli - 30 days confinement: traditions and changed childbearing beliefs and practices
among Hmong women in Australia.” Midwifery. 16(1): 22-34.

Vang, A.K. (2000). Locus of Control and Family Support: Predictors of Life Satisfaction Among Hmong Women.
PhD Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology.

Vue, Mana (2000). Perception of Early Marriage and Future Educational Goals Attainment for Hmong Female
Adolescents. Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Corlett, Jan Louise (1999). Landscapes and lifescapes: Three generations of Hmong women and their gardens,
PhD dissertation. University of California – Davis.

Moua, Mee Lee. (1999). Family violence in the Hmong community. M.S.W research paper, College of St.
Catherine; University of St. Thomas (Saint Paul, Minn.).

Rice, Janet. (1999). Hmong women's group using traditional quilting to recover from depression and post-trauma.
Psy.D dissertation, Minnesota School of Professional Psychology.

Rice, P.L. (1999). “When the baby falls!: The cultural construction of miscarriage among Hmong women in
Australia.” Women and Health. 30(1): 85-103.

Vue, Chusee (1999). Hmong Youth Attitudes Toward Early Marriage. Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-

Cooper, Robert (Editor) (1998). The Hmong: A guide to traditional lifestyles . Singapore: Times Editions.

Foss, Gwendolyn F. (1998). Relationships between posttraumatic stress, acculturation, and maternal sensitivity in
Vietnamese and Hmong mothers. D.N.Sc. dissertation, University of San Diego.

Julian, Roberta. (1998). "'I love driving': Alternative constructions of Hmong femininity in the West." Race, Gender
& Class, 5(2), 30-53.

Rice, PL., and Naksook, C. (1998). “The experience of pregnancy, labour and birth of Thai women in Australia.”
Midwifery. 14(2): 74-84.

Bennett, Jane A ; Detzner, Daniel F. (1997). Loneliness in cultural context, A look at the life history narratives of
older Southeast Asian refugee women. In A. Lieblich ; R. Josselson (Eds.), The Narrative Study of Lives (Vol. 5,
pp. 113-146). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Getahun, Linde Joveda. (1997). Women in cultural transition: Voices of Hmong mothers in an urban school. Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Hang, MayKao Yangblongsua. (1997) "Growing Up Hmong American: Truancy Policy and Girls." Hmong Studies
Journal Vol. 1 No. 2.

Howard, Katsuyo. (1997). Hmong families. In Understanding cultural parenting values, traditions and practices.
Bavolek, Stephen J. (Ed.), (pp. ). Park City, Utah: Family Development Resources.

Lee, S.J. (1997). “The Road to College: Hmong American Women’s Pursuit of Higher Education.” Harvard
Educational Review 67(4): 803-27.

Yang, Kou. (1997) "Hmong Mens' Adaptation to Life in the United States." Hmong Studies Journal Vol. 1 No. 2.

Yang, Pao. (1997). An investigation of divorce related to Hmong American women. M.S. thesis, University of
Wisconsin, Stout.

Detzner, Daniel F. (1996). No Place Without a Home: Southeast Asian Grandparents in Refugee Families.
Generations 20(1): 45-48.

Duong Tran, Quang, Lee, Serge & Khoi, Sokley. (1996). Ethnic and gender differences in parental expectations
and life stress. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 13(6):515-526.

Gurung, Carolyn Ruth (1996). The reported symptoms of depression by Hmong refugee women. M.S. thesis,
University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh.

Ireson, Carol J. (1996). Field, Forest, and Family: Women's Work and Power in Rural Laos. Boulder, CO:
Westview Press.

Lundberg, Kirstin V. (1996). Becoming a Hmong herb lady. M.A. thesis, California State University, Chico.

Lynch, Annette, Detzner, Daniel F. & Eicher, Joanne. (1996). Transmission and reconstruction of gender through
dress: Hmong American New Year rituals. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. 14(4): 257-266.

Reavill, Lisa K. (1996). Promise and paradox: the experience of Hmong women in college. Ph.D. dissertation,
University of St. Thomas (St. Paul).

Tuttle, Cynthia Reeves; Dewey, Kathryn G. (1996). Potential cost savings for Medi-Cal, AFDC, food stamps, and
WIC programs associated with increasing breast-feeding among low-income Hmong women in California. Journal
of the American Dietetic Association.

Velasco, Joyce D. (1996). Exploration of employment possibilities for Hmong women with psychiatric disorders.
The Journal of Rehabilitation 62(4): 33.

Bashinski, Bernadette Kathleen. (1995). The cultural responses of Hmong women during the perinatal period
within the western biomedical environment . M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire.

Fendya, Jennifer Anne. (1995). Being a Hmong woman in America: A phenomenological study of female Hmong
college students. Ph.D. dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.

Jambunathan, J. & Stewart, S. (1995). Hmong women in Wisconsin: what are their concerns in pregnancy and
childbirth? Birth, 22(4):204 .

Jambunathan, Jaya. (1995). Hmong Cultural Practices and Beliefs. The Postpartum Period. Clinical Nursing
Research. 4(3): 335-345.

Lynch, Annette, Detzner, Daniel F. & Eicher, Joanne. (1995). “Hmong American New Year rituals: generational
bonds through dress.” Clothing and Textiles Research Journal , 13(2), 111-120.

Rice, P.L. (1995). "Pog Laus, Tsis Coj Khaub Ncaws Lawm: The Menopause in Hmong Women." Journal of
Reproductive and Infant Psychology, Special Issue on the Menopause, 13, 79-92. Reprinted at www.hmongnet.
org/hmong-au/ website. 15 p.

Tuttle, Cynthia Reeves; Dewey, Kathryn G. (1995). Impact of a breastfeeding promotion program for Hmong
women at selected WIC sites in northern California. Journal of Nutrition Education. 27(2): 69+.

Vakil-Kapoor, Veena (1995). Effects of gender and culture on the educational experience of Southeast Asian
women in Fresno City College (California), EdD dissertation. University of San Francisco.

Cha, Dia & Small, Cathy A. (1994). Policy lessons from Lao and Hmong women in Thai refugee camps. World
Development , 22(7), 1045-1059.

Evans-Pritchard, D. & Rundeln, A.D. (1994). The Interpretation and Distortion of Culture: A Hmong "Marriage by
Capture" Case in Fresno, California. Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, 4(1): 1-48.

Donnelly, Nancy D. (1994). Changing lives of refugee Hmong women . Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Gilanshah, Farah (1994). The Effects of Immigration on Hmong Women in La Crosse Wisconsin. In Ethnic
Women: a Multiple Status Reality, Demos, Vasilikie, & Segal, Marcia Texler eds, Dix Hills, NY: General Hall, Inc.,

Hagemeister, A.K. (1994). Gender in Hmong Families: Voices From Two Generations. Master’s Thesis, University
of Minnesota.

Hutchinson, R. and M. McNall (1994). “Early Marriage in a Hmong Cohort.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 56
(August 1994): 579-590.

Rice, P.L. (1994). "When I had my Baby Here!" In Rice, P.L., (ed.) Asian Mothers, Australian Birth - Pregnancy,
Childbirth, and Childrearing: The Asian Experience in an English Speaking Country. Melbourne: Ausmed
Publication. Reprinted at website. 15 p.

Rice, P.L., Ly, B. and Lumley, J. (1994). “Childbirth and Soul Loss: The Case of a Hmong Woman.” The Medical
Journal of Australia 160 (2 May 1994): 577-578.

Rice, P.L, Ly, B., and Lumley, J. (1994). "Soul Loss Following a Caesarean Operation." Medical Journal of
Australia, 160, 577-578. Reprinted at website. 5 p.

Vang, M.M. (1994). Hmong Mothers and Daughters: Cultural Adjustment and Conflict. Master’s Thesis, California
State University, Stanislaus.

Winland, Daphne N. (1994). Christianity and community: conversion and adaptation among Hmong refugee
women. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie . 19(1), 21-45.

Dana, A.F. (1993). Courtship and Marriage Traditions of the Hmong. Master's Thesis, California State University,

Danes, S.M. (1993). "Middle-Generation Hmong Couple Decision Making Patterns." In Cross Cultural Approaches
to Home Management, edited by R.V. Schweitzer, 307-331. Frankfurt am Main: Boulder, CO: Campus Verlag;
Westview Press, 1993.

Danes, S.M. (1993). "Middle-Generation Hmong Couple Decision Making Patterns." In Cross Cultural Approaches
to Home Management, edited by R.V. Schweitzer, 307-331. Frankfurt am Main: Boulder, CO: Campus Verlag;
Westview Press, 1993.

Ly, Maychy. (1993). Hmong women: Their role and responsibilities . Minneapolis: Association for the
Advancement of Hmong Women in Minnesota.

Trevison, C. (1993). “Changing Sexual Assault and the Hmong.” Indiana Law Review 27: 393-314.

Faller, H.S. (1992). “Hmong Women: Characteristics and Birth Outcomes.” Birth 19 (September 1992): 144-148.

Jewell, C.M. (1992). Gender Roles and Second Language Acquisition in Hmong Acculturation. PhD Dissertation,
West Virginia University.

Judkins, R.A. and A.B. Judkins. (1992). “Commentary: Cultural Dimensions of Hmong Birth.” Birth 19 (September
1992): 148-150.

Lengyel, K.A. (1992). How do Hmong Women Perceive Their Hospital Stay During Labor, Birth, and Postpartum?
Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Sakulnamarka, D. (1992). Life Satisfaction of Middle-Generation Hmong Husbands and Wives. PhD Dissertation,
University of Minnesota.

Vang, A.T.K. (1992). A Descriptive Study of Academically Proficient Hmong High School Girl Dropouts. Ed.D
Dissertation, University of San Francisco, 1992.

Gustafson, M.R. and S.L. Roettger. “Pictorial Literacy Skills of Haitian and Hmong Women.” Journal of Visual
Literacy 11 (Spring 1991): 77-84.

Symonds, Patricia Veronica (1991). Cosmology And The Cycle Of Life: Hmong View Of Birth, Death And Gender
In A Mountain Village In Northern Thailand, PhD dissertation, Brown University.

Weinstein-Shr, G. and N.Z. Henkin (1991). “Continuity and Change: Intergenerational Relations in Southeast
Asian Refugee Families.” Marriage and Family Review 16 (Summer 1991): 351-367.

Vang, V. (1991). Identifying the Needs of Hmong Parents Experiencing Cultural Conflicts in American Society.
Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Yang, D. (1991). “Generational Conflict Among the Hmong in the United States.” Hmong Forum 2 (1991): 35-38.

Ahrens, M.H. (1990). “Harmonizing Health Through a Life Acculturation Process: A Grounded Theory of Hmong
Women.” Master’s Thesis, University of Oklahoma.

Elkins, J.L. (1990). The Factors Associated With the Initial Infant Feeding Choice Among Hmong Mothers in
Northern California. Master’s Thesis, California State University, Chico, 1990.

Hall, S.E. (1990). "Hmong Kinship Roles: Insiders and Outsiders." Hmong Forum, 1:25-39.

Hentschke, K. and E.I. Stradinger. (1990). “Hmong Women’s Attitudes Toward Family Planning.” Master’s Project,
California State University, Sacramento.

Hughes, M.K. (1990). Hmong Concepts of Parenthood and Family in the United States. Master’s Thesis,
Washington State University.

Podhisita, C., P. Kunstadter, and S.L. Kunstadter. (1990). “Evidence for Early Fertility Transition Among the
Hmong in Northern Thailand.” Journal of Population and Social Studies. 2: 137-155.

Rolnick, S. (1990). “Reducing Teenage Childbearing in the Hmong Community, First Year Results.” Vietnam
Generation 2, No. 3: 53-61.

Yang, M. (1990). “The Education of Hmong Women.” Vietnam Generation 2, no. 3: 62-87.

Donnelly, N.D. (1989). The Changing Lives of Refugee Hmong Women. PhD Dissertation, University of

Frances, A. and J. Kroll. (1989). “Ongoing Treatment of a Hmong Widow Who Suffers From Pain and
Depression.” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 40 (July 1989): 691-693.

Goldstein, B.L. (1988). “In Search of Survival: The Education and Integration of Hmong Refugee Girls.” Journal of
Ethnic Studies 16 (Summer 1998): 1-27.

Hirayama, K.K. and H. Hirayama. (1988). “Stress, Social Supports and Adaptational Patterns in Hmong Refugee
Families.” Amerasia Journal 14 (Winter 1988): 93-108.

Irby, C.C. and E.M. Pon (1988). “Confronting New Mountains: Mental Health Problems Among Male Hmong and
Mien Refugees.” AmerAsia Journal 14 (Winter 1988): 109-118.

Vangay, J.V.N. (1988). Hmong Parents’ Cultural Attitudes and the Sex-Ratio Imbalance of Hmong Merced High
School Graduates.” Master’s Thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.

Abergel, D. (1987). "Women and Religion: "Mennonite Hmong." Refuge: Canada's Periodical on Refugees, Feb.
1987, 9.

Edwards, L.E.; C.J. Rautio and E.Y. Hakanson. (1987). “Pregnancy in Hmong Refugee Women.” Minnesota
Medicine 70 (November 1987): 633-637.

Sheybani, M.M. (1987). “Cultural Defense: One Person’s Culture is Another’s Crime.” Loyola of Los Angeles
International and Comparative Law Journal 9 (Summer 1987): 751-83.

Dunnigan, T. (1986). “Processes of Identity Maintenance in Hmong Society.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by
G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 41-53.

Goldstein, B.L. (1986). “Resolving Sexual Assault: Hmong and the American Legal System.” In The Hmong in
Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 135-43.

Meredith, W.H. and G.P. Rowe. (1986). “Changes in Hmong Refugee Marital Attitudes in America.” In The Hmong
in Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing and A.S. Deinard, 121-133.

Meredith, W.H. and G.P. Rowe. (1986). “Changes in Lao Hmong Marital Attitudes After Immigrating to the United
States.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 17 (Spring 1986): 117-126.

Thao, C.T. (1986). "Hmong Customs on Marriage, Divorce, and the Rights of Married Women." In The Hmong
World, Editors, Brenda Johns and David Strecker, New Haven, CT: Council on Southeast Asia Studies, pp. 74-99.

Bishop, K.A. (1985). The Hmong of Central California: An Investigation and Analysis of the Changing Family
Structure During Liminality, Acculturation and Transition.” Ed.D. dissertation, University of San Francisco.

Goldstein, B.L. (1985). Schooling For Cultural Transitions: Hmong Girls And Boys In American Schools, PhD
dissertation, University of Wisconsin – Madison.

Lee, G.Y. (1985). “Aspects of Hmong Residence, Household, and Marriage.” Minneapolis: Southeast Asian
Refugee Studies Project, University of Minnesota, 1985.

Lee, G.Y. (1985). “Hmong Social Structure and World View.” Minneapolis: Southeast Asian Refugee Studies
Project, University of Minnesota, 1985.

Symonds, P.V. (1984). A Flower Full of Honey and Ready for the Bee: Hmong Perceptions of Adolescent
Pregnancy. Master’s Thesis, Brown University.

Westermeyer, J., Bouafuely, M., and T.F. Vang. (1984). “Hmong Refugees in Minnesota: Sex Roles and Mental
Health.” Medical Anthropology 8 (Fall 1984): 229-45.

Cooper, R. (1983). "Sexual Inequality Among the Hmong." In J. McKinnon and W. Bhruksasri, eds. Highlanders of
Thailand. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Kunstadter, P. (1983). “Cultural Ideals, Socioeconomic Change, and Household Composition: Karen Lua’, Hmong
and Thai in Northwestern Thailand.” In Households: Comparative and Historical Studies of the Domestic Group,
edited by R. Mcc Netting, RR. Wilk, and E.J. Arnould, 299-329. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California
Press, 1984.

Linblad, K.S. (1982). Brutality and Morality: Domestic Violence and the Hmong. (Unpublished).

Matsumoto, D.R. (1982). Asian Women and the Law: Two Case Studies. In Asian and Pacific American
Experiences: Women’s Perspectives. Nobuya Tsuchida, ed., pp. 230-245. Minneapolis: Asian/Pacific American
Learning Resource Center, University of Minnesota.

Vang, Kao (1982). Hmong Marriage Customs: A Current Assessment. In The Hmong in the West: Observations
and Reports. Bruce T. Downing and Douglas P. Olney, eds., pp. 29-47. Minneapolis: Center for Urban and
Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota.

Cooper, Robert G. (1980). Sexual Inequality Among the Hmong. In Highlanders of Thailand, W. Bhruksasri and J.
Mckinnon, eds. Kuala Lampur: Oxford University Press.

Dunnigan, T. (1980). Negotiating Marriage in Hmong Society: An Example of the Effect of Social Ritual on
Language Maintenance. Minnesota Papers in Linguistics and the Philosophy of Language 6: 28-46.

Dunnigan, T. (1980). The Importance of Kinship in Hmong Community Development. Paper Read at the American
Anthropological Association.

Bertrais, Yves (1978). The Traditional Marriage Among the White Hmong of Thailand and Laos. Chiang Mai,
Thailand: Hmong Center.

Westermeyer, J. (1978). A Comparative Study of Male and Female Opium Addicts among the Hmong (Meo).
British Journal of Addiction 73: 181-187.

Bertrais, Yves (1977). Le marriage traditionnel chez les Hmong Blancs du et de la Thailande. Chiang Mai,
Thailand: Hmong Center.

Lemoine, Jacques (1972). Un village Hmong Vert du haut Laos. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique. [301.9594 L544]

Kacha-ananda, Chob (1972) Le systeme de la famille Yao. Journal of the Siam Society 60(1):187-194.