Hmong Religion and Christianity

Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD

Gerdner, L.A. (2012). "Shamanism: Indications and Use by Older Hmong Americans with Chronic Illness."
Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13(1).

Lemoine, J. (2011). "Commentary: The (H)mong Shamans’ Power of Healing: Sharing the Esoteric Knowledge of
a Great Mong Shaman." Hmong Studies Journal, 12: 1-36.

Tam, N.T.T. (2010). “Ethnic and Transnational Dimensions of Recent Protestant Conversion
among the Hmong in Northern Vietnam.” Social Compass 57(3): 332-344.

Watt, H. (2008). "The Power of the Spoken Word in Defining Religion and Thought: A Case Study." Hmong
Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-25.

Xiong, N. and Y.S. Xiong. (2008). "A Critique of Timothy Vang’s Hmong Religious Conversion and Resistance
Study." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-22.

Vang, X.X. (2007). “Awareness of Hmong Religious Practices and Rituals in Regards to Counseling Hmong
Students.” MS Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Yang, K.L. (2006). "The Meeting with Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy A Case Study of Syncretism in the Hmong
System of Beliefs." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 7, 2006.

Deborah Helsel, Marilyn Mochel and Robert Bauer. (2005). “Chronic Illness and Hmong Shamans.” Journal of
Transcultural Nursing, 16(2)(April 2005):150-154.

Her, Vincent K. (2005). "Hmong Cosmology: Proposed Model, Preliminary Insights" Hmong Studies Journal, Vol
6, 2005

Helsel, Deborah G., Mochel, Marilyn, and Robert Bauer. (2004). “Shamans in a Hmong American Community.”
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 10(6): 933-339.

Culas, C. (2004). "Innovation and Tradition in Rituals and Cosmology: Hmong Messianism and Shamanism in
Southeast Asia." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai,
Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 97-128.

Hao Huang and Bussakorn Sumrongthong. (2004). “Speaking with Spirits: The Hmong Ntoo Xeeb New Year
Ceremony.” Asian Folklore Studies 63:31-55.

Symonds, Patricia V. (2004). Calling in the Soul: Gender and the Cycle of Life in a Hmong Village. Seattle and
London: University of Washington Press.

Cha, Dia. (2003). "The Hmong 'Dab Pog Couple' Story and its Significance in Arriving at an Understanding of
Hmong Ritual." Hmong Studies Journal, 4:1-20

Paj Ntaub Voice. (2003). “Art and Religion in Our Living Culture.” Volume 8(2) and Volume 9(1). Latest issue of
a Hmong literary journal.

Plotnikoff, Gregory A.; Numerich, Charles; Wu, Chu; Yang, Deu; and Phua Xiong. (2002). “Hmong Shamanism:
Animist Spiritual Healing in Minnesota.” Minnesota Medicine 85(6): 29-34.

Yang, Cziasarh Neng. (2002). Cultural capital : old Hmong culture in modern times. Ed.D. Dissertation, University
of Saint Thomas, Saint Paul, MN.

Hones, D.F. (2001). "The word: Religion and literacy in the life of a Hmong American." (The effects of Christian
conversion on refugee clan and family relationships) RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 96(4): 489-509.

Xiong, G. (2001). Knowledge, utilization, and perceptions of shamanism and Western counseling or
psychotherapy by the various Hmong subgenerational groups and religious beliefs. MA Thesis, California State
University, Fresno.

Alison Lewis. (2000). The Western Protestant Missionaries and the Miao in Yunnan and Guizhou, Southwest
China. From Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples: Mountain Minorities in the Southeast Asian Massif, ed.
Jean Michaud. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. pp. 79-98.

Cooper, Robert (Editor) (1998). The Hmong: A guide to traditional lifestyles . Singapore: Times Editions.

Morrison, G. (1998). “The Hmong Qeej: Speaking to the Spirit World.” Hmong Studies Journal 2(2): 1-12.

Vang, Timothy. (1998). Coming a full circle: Historical analysis of the Hmong church growth, 1950-1998. D. Min.
dissertation, Fuller Theological Seminary.

Cheung, S.W. (1997). "Millenarianism, Christian Movements, and Ethnic Change Among the Miao in Southwest
China." In Cultural Encounters on China's Ethnic Frontiers, Ed. S. Harrell, Seattle: University of Washington
Press, 2nd Printing, pp. 217-247.

Davy, Joseph. (1997) "Por Thao's Funeral (documentary photo essay)."Hmong Studies Journal Vol. 2 No. 1.

Fadiman, Anne. (1997). The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down : A Hmong Child, Her Doctors and an
American Tragedy. Farrar Straus & Giroux. (HSJ Review)

Lemoine, J. and Eisenbruch, M. (1997). “The practice of the power of healing by the Hmong shamans and the
cambodian traditional healers of Indochina.” Homme. 37 (144): 69-103.

Falk, C. (1996). "Upon Meeting the Ancestors: The Hmong Funeral Ritual in Asia and
Australia." Hmong Studies Journal 1(1):1-15.

Lemoine, Jacques (1996). “The Constitution of a Hmong Shaman’s Powers of Healing and Folk Culture.”
Shaman 4 (1 and 2): 144-165.

Symonds, Patricia V. (1996). “Blessing among the White Hmong of Northern Thailand.” In Merit and Blessing in
Mainland Southeast Asia in Comparative Perspective eds. C. A. Kammerer and N. Tannenbaum, New Haven:
Yale Southeast Asia Studies, 98-115.

Bao, X. (1994). “The Guzong Festival: Ancestral Sacrifice Among the Miao.” China Tourism, December 1994, 74-

Ensign, John. (1994). Traditional healing in the Hmong refugee community of the California Central Valley . Ph.
D., California School of Professional Psychology.

Reimer, C. (1994). “God is More Powerful.” The Mennonite, 27 December 1994, 6-7. (Profile of Pastor of Hmong
Mennonite Church).

Rice, P.L., Ly, B. and Lumley, J. (1994). “Childbirth and Soul Loss: The Case of a Hmong Woman.” The Medical
Journal of Australia 160 (2 May 1994): 577-578.

Rice, P.L, Ly, B., and Lumley, J. (1994). "Soul Loss Following a Caesarean Operation." Medical Journal of
Australia, 160, 577-578. Reprinted at website. 5 p.

Winland, Daphne N. (1994). Christianity and community: conversion and adaptation among Hmong refugee
women. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie . 19(1), 21-45.

Bliatout, B. (1993). “Hmong Death Customs: Traditional and Acculturated.” In Ethnic Variations in Dying, Death,
and Grief: Diversity in Universality, edited by D.K. Irish, K.F. Lundquist, and V.J. Nelsen, 79-100. Washington D.
C.: Taylor and Francis, 1993.

Chanson, P. (1993). “Father Yves Bertrais, An Essential Figure in the History of Hmong Christianity: Tribute in
the Form of a Travel Story.” Translated by J.L.C. Steenbrink. Exchange: Journal of Missiological and Ecumenical
Research 22 (April 1993) 1-17.

Davidson, Jack (1993). Hmong Ethnohistory: An Historical Study Of Hmong Culture And Its Implications For
Ministry (Laotian), Dmiss dissertation. Fuller Theological Seminary, School Of World Mission.

Herman, L.E. (1993). “Training Hmong Leaders of Powderhorn Park Baptist Church to Deal with Spirit
Oppression.” Master’s Thesis, Moody Bible Institute.

Gibeau, D. (1993). “Hmong Mass in Gothic Church.” National Catholic Reporter, 10 December 1993, 19.

Taillez, D. (1993). "A New Heart: Hmong Christians in America." Migration World Magazine. 21(2-3): 3 p.

Thao, P.N. (1993). “Between Two Worlds: Hmong Ethnography, Spirituality, and Ceremony for the Deceased.”
Master’s Thesis, Mankato State University.

Falk, C. (1992). "Hmong Funeral in Australia in 1992." Paper reprinted at website.
9 p.

Mitchell, R.E., (1992). "Tradition, Change, and Hmong Refugees." In Creativity and Tradition in Folklore: New
Directions. Edited by S.J. Bronner. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press. pp. 263-275.

Winland, D.N. (1992). "The Role of Religious Affiliation in Refugee Resettlement: The Case of the Hmong."
Canadian Ethnic Studies 24: 96-119.

Bliatout, B. (1991). “Hmong Healing Practictioners.” Hmong Forum 2: 58-66.

Capps, L.L. (1991). “Concepts of Health and Illness of the Protestant Hmong.” PhD Dissertation, University of
Kansas, 1991.

Jilek, W.G. and L. Jilek-Aall. (1991). “The Mental Health Relevance of Traditional Medicine and Shamanism in
Refugee Camps of Northern Thailand.” Curare 13 no. 4: 217-224.

Symonds, Patricia Veronica (1991). Cosmology And The Cycle Of Life: Hmong View Of Birth, Death And Gender
In A Mountain Village In Northern Thailand, PhD dissertation, Brown University.

Bliatout, B. (1990). "Hmong Beliefs About Health and Illness." Hmong Forum, 1:40-45.

Crouch, A.E. (1990). Ministry to Hmong Refugees in Central California." D.Min. Dissertation, San Francisco
Theological Seminary.

O’Connor, Bonnie Blair (1990). Vernacular Health Belief Systems And Their Implications For Clinical Care
(Health Belief Systems), PhD dissertation. University of Pennsylvania.

Schriever, S.H. (1990). “Comparison of Beliefs and Practices of Ethnic Viet and Lao Hmong Concerning Illness,
Healing, Death, and Mourning: Implications for Hospice Care with Refugees in Canada.” Journal of Palliative
Care 6: 42-49.

Smalley, W.A., Vang, C.K. and G.Y. Yang. (1990). Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong
Messianic Script. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Vang, C.K., Yang, G.Y., and W.M. Smalley. (1990). The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong ‘Mother of Writing’
//Keeb Kwm Soob Lwj Yaj: “Hmoob Niam Ntawv”. Southeast Asian Refugee Occasional Papers, Number 9.
Minneapolis, MN: Southeast Asian Refugee Studies, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, University of

Brainerd J. and A. Zaharlick. (1989). “Changing Health Beliefs and Behaviors of Resettled Laotian Refugees:
Ethnic Variation in Adaptation.” Social Science and Medicine 29: 845-852.

Conquerhood, D. (1989). I am a Shaman: A Hmong Life Story With Ethnographic Commentary, Southeast Asian
Refugee Studies, Occasional Papers, Number 8.

Culhane-Pera, K.A. (1989). Analysis of Cultural Beliefs and Power Dynamics in Disagreements about Health
Care of Hmong Children. MA Thesis, University of Minnesota.

Tapp, N. (1989). “Hmong Religion.” Asian Folklore Studies 48: 59-94.

Tapp, N. (1989). “The Impact of Missionary Christianity Upon Marginalized Ethnic Minorities: The Case of the
Hmong.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 20: 70-95.

Winland, D.N. (1989). A Plea for Peoplehood: Religious and Ethnic Identity, Continuity and Change Among the
Mennonites of Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario. PhD Dissertation, York University (Toronto, Canada).

Bliatout, B. (1988). “Hmong Attitudes Towards Surgery: How It Affects Patient Prognosis.” Migration World 16,
No. 1: 25-28.

Culhane-Pera, K. (1988). "Hmong Traditional Medicine and Shamanism." Paper presented to the American
Refugee Committee, February 23, 1988.

Culhane-Pera, K. (1988). "Hmong Beliefs about Blood and Their Impact on Blood Drawing." Paper Presented at
the Society for Applied Anthropology, Tampa, Florida, April 22, 1988.

Lemoine, J. (1988). “The Bridge: An Essential Implement of Hmong and Yao Shamanism.” In Shaman’s Path:
Healing, Personal Growth, and Empowerment, edited by Gary Doore, 63-72. Boston: Shambhala.

Tapp, N. (1988). “Geomancy and Development: The Case of the White Hmong of North Thailand.” Ethnos 53:

Waller, S. (1988). “Hmong Shamans in a County Mental Health Setting: A Bicultural Model for Healing Laotian
Mountain People.” In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and
Alternate Modes of Healing, ed. R.I. Heinze, 52-63. Berkeley, Independent Scholars of Asia, 1988.

Abergel, D. (1987). "Women and Religion: "Mennonite Hmong." Refuge: Canada's Periodical on Refugees, Feb.
1987, 9.

Cohen, E. (1987). “Hmong Cross: A Cosmic Symbol in Hmong (Meo) Textile Designs.” RES 14 (autumn 1987):

Culhane-Pera, K. (1987). "The Hmong Cultural Reaction to Surgery." Paper Presented at the American Cancer
Society, April 3, 1987.

Culhane-Pera, K. (1987). "An Investigation of Hmong People's Reactions to Surgical Procedures." Paper
Presented at the Bethesda Staff Conference, November 13, 1987.

Lemoine, J. (1986). “Shamanism in the Context of Hmong Resettlement.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L.
Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 337-48.

Tapp, N. (1986). “Buddhism and the Hmong: A Case Study in Social Adjustment.” Journal of Developing
Societies 2 (April 1986): 68-88.

Tapp, N. (1986). “Geomancy as an Aspect of Upland-Lowland Relationships.” In the Hmong in Transition, edited
by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 87-95.

Tapp, N. (1986). The Hmong People of Thailand: Opium People of the Golden Triangle. Indigenous Peoples and
Development Series Report No. 4. London, England and Cambridge, MA: Anti-Slavery Society and Cultural
Survival, Inc.

Willcox, D. (1986). Hmong Folklife. Hmong Natural Association of North Carolina.

"Hmong Perception of Illness and Traditional Ways of Healing." (1985). In The Hmong in Transition, Eds. G.L.
Hendricks, B.T. Downing, A.S. Deinard. Staten Island, NY: Center for Migration Studies of New York.

Finck, J. (1984). "Southeast Asian Refugees of Rhode Island: Cross-Cultural Issues in Medical Care: Concerns
about Blood Drawing, Medications, Surgery, and Autopsies are Discussed." Rhode Island Medical Journal 67:

Mottin J. (1984). A Hmong Shamans Séance and Religious Characteristics, Beliefs, and Techniques. Asian
Folklore Studies. 43(1): 99-108.

Chindarsi, Nusit (1983). “Hmong Shamanism.” In Highlanders of Thailand eds. J. McKinnon and W. Bhruksasri.
New York: Oxford University Press, 187-193.

Tobin, J.J. and J. Friedman. (1983). “Spirits, Shamans, and Nightmare Death: Survivor Stress in a Hmong
Refugee.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 53 (July 1983): 439-48.

White, K. (1983). Showing the Way: A Hmong Initiation of the Dead. Bangkok: Pandora.

Johnson, Charles (1982). Hmong Myths, Legends and Folktales: A Resource for Understanding. In The Hmong
in the West: Observations and Reports. Bruce T. Downing and Douglas P. Olney, eds., pp. 86-98. Minneapolis:
Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota.

Scott, George, Jr. (1982). A New Year in a New Land: Religious Change Among the Lao Hmong Refugees in San
Diego. In The Hmong in the West: Observations and Reports. Bruce T. Downing and Douglas P. Olney, eds., pp.
63-85. Minneapolis: Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota.

Westermeyer, J. (1979). “Folk” Explanations of Mental Illness in Rural Laos. American Journal of Psychiatry 136
(7): 901-905.

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Ruey Yih-Fu, and T. K. Kuan (1962). Marriage and Mortuary Customs of the Magpie Miao of Southern
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Vannicelli, Luigi (1956). Il culto religioso presso I Miao. Die Wiene Schule der Volkerkunde: Festshrift Vienna
Verlay Ferdinan Berger. Translated by the Army Translation Service as The Religious Cult of the Miao, J-2230,
May 1967.

Bourotte, B. (1943). Mariages et funerailles chez les Meo blancs de la region de Nong-Het (Tran Ninh). Bulletin
de l’Institute pour l’Etude de l’Homme, Hanoi 6:33-56.

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