The Hmong in Southeast Asia

Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD

Nakai, S. (2012). "Pig Domestication Processes: An Analysis of Varieties of Household Pig Reproduction
Control in a Hillside Village in Northern Thailand." Human Ecology, 40: 145-152.

Srithi, K. et al. (2012). "Medicinal plants used in Hmong women's healthcare in northern Thailand." Journal of
Ethnopharmacology, 139 (2012) 119-135.

Turner, S. (2012). "Making a Living the Hmong Way: An Actor-Oriented Livelihoods Approach to Everyday
Politics and Resistance in Upland Vietnam." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 102(2): 403-

Bonnin. C. and S. Turner. (2012). "At what price rice? Food security, livelihood vulnerability, and state
interventions in upland Northern Vietnam." Geoforum 43: 95-105.

Lavoie, C. and C. Benson. (2011). "Drawing-voice as a methodological tool for understanding teachers'
concerns in a pilot Hmong-Vietnamese bilingual education programme in Vietnam." Language, Culture and
Curriculum 24(3): 269-286.

Michaud, J. and T. Forsyth. (2011). Moving Mountains: Ethnicity and Livelihoods in Highland China,
Vietnam and Laos. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Baird, I. (2010). "The Hmong Come to Southern Laos: Local Responses and the Creation of Racialized
Boundaries." Hmong Studies Journal 11: 1-38.

Michaud, J. (2010). “Handling Mountain Minorities in China, Vietnam and Laos: From History and
Current Concerns.” Asian Ethnicity 10(1): 25-49.

Postert, C. (2010). “Moral Agency, Identity Crisis and Mental Health: An Anthropologist’s Plight and His
Hmong Ritual Healing.” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 34(1): 169-85.

Tam, N.T.T. (2010). “Ethnic and Transnational Dimensions of Recent Protestant Conversion
among the Hmong in Northern Vietnam.” Social Compass 57(3): 332-344.

Tapp, N. (2010). The Impossibility of Self: An Essay on the Hmong Diaspora. Comparative
Anthropological Studies in Society, Cosmology and Politics, Volume 6. Berlin: Lit Verlag.

Tapp, N. (2010). "Perspectives on Hmong Studies: Speech by Nicholas Tapp on Receiving the Eagle Award at
the Third International Conference on Hmong Studies, Concordia University, Saint Paul, April 10, 2010." Hmong
Studies Journal, 11: 1-12.

Xiong, C.W. (2010). A Critical Hermeneutic Approach to Hmong Leadership in the Lao PDR: Horizons of
Forgiveness and Action through Imagination in Community Development. PhD Dissertation, University of
San Francisco.

Evrard, O. and P. Leepreecha. (2009). “Monks, Monarchs, and Mountain Folks: Domestic
Tourism and Internal Colonialism in Northern Thailand.” Critique of Anthropology 29(3): 300-323.

Latt, S.S.W. (2009). “Ethnic Politics, Migrant Labour and Agrarian Transformation: A Case Study of
the Hmong and the Shan in a Royal Project in Northern Thailand.” Canada Research Chair in Asian Studies
Working Paper, Number 4, February 2009 – Universite de Montreal.

Lee, S. (2009). "Searching for the Hmong People’s Ethnic Homeland and Multiple Dimensions of Transnational
Longing: From the Viewpoint of the Hmong in Laos." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-18.

Mendonca, K.C. (2009). "Appropriating the unspoken text: development discourse and Hmong women in Lao
People's Democratic Republic." Ed.D. Dissertation, University of San Francisco.

Nakai, S. (2009). “Analysis of Pig Consumption by Smallholders in a Hillside Swidden
Agriculture Society of Northern Thailand.” Human Ecology 37(Published Online 20 June 2009): 501-

Tugault-Lafleur, C. and S. Turner. (2009). “Of Rice and Spice: Hmong Livelihoods and Diversification in the
Northern Vietnam Uplands.” Canada Research Chair in Asian Studies Working Paper, Number 3, January 2009
– Universite de Montreal.

Tugault-Lafleur, C. and S. Turner. (2009). “The Price of Spice: Ethnic Minority Livelihoods and
Cardamom Commodity Chains in Upland Northern Vietnam.” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 30:

Turner S. and J. Michaud (2009). “`Weapons of the Week’: Selective Resistance and Agency among
the Hmong in Northern Vietnam.” In Dominique Caouette and Sarah Turner, Editors, Agrarian Angst and
Rural Resistance in Contemporary Southeast Asia. London, New York: Routledge, 45-60.

Vang, C.Y. (2009). "U.S. Cold War Policies in Laos and the Hmong, 1961-1975." In Toshihiko
Kishi and Yuka Tsuchiya (eds), De-Centering the Cultural Cold War: The US and Asia. Tokyo: Kokusai

Vang, C.Y. (2009). “Hmong Anti-Communism at Hmong and Abroad” In Ieva Zake (ed). (2009). Anti-
Communist Minorities in the U.S.: Political Activism of Ethnic Refugees. New York: Palgrave

Duong, H.B. (2008). "Contesting Marginality: Consumption, Networks,and Everyday Practice among Hmong
Girls in Sa Pa, Northwestern Vietnam." Journal of Vietnamese Studies 3(3): 231-260.

P. Leepreecha. (2008). "Role of Media Technology in Reproducing Hmong Ethnic Identity."  
In D. McCaskill, P. Leepreecha and S. He, Eds. Living in a Globalized World: Ethnic Minorities in the Greater
Mekong Region. Bangkok: Mekong Press.

D. McCaskill. (2008). "Fix and Flux: the transformation of Hmong Culture and Identity." In D. McCaskill, P.
Leepreecha and S. He, Eds. Living in a Globalized World: Ethnic Minorities in the Greater Mekong Region.
Bangkok: Mekong Press.

D. McCaskill, P. Leepreecha and S. He (2008). "Globalization, Nationalism, Regionalism and Ethnic Minorities in
the Greater Mekong Subregion: A Comparative Analysis." In D. McCaskill, P. Leepreecha and S. He, Eds. Living
in a Globalized World: Ethnic Minorities in the Greater Mekong Region. Bangkok: Mekong Press.

Michaud J. and S. Turner. (2008). "Imaginative and Adaptive Economic Strategies for Hmong Livelihoods in Lao
Cai Province, Northern Vietnam." Journal of Vietnamese Studies 3(3): 158-190.

Nakai, S. (2008). “Reproductive Performance Analysis of Native Pig Smallholders in the
Hillside of Northern Thailand.” Tropical Animal Health and Production 40: 561-566.

Nakai, S. (2008). “Decision-making on the Use of Diverse Combinations of Agricultural
Products and Natural Plants in Pig Feed: A Case Study of Native Pig Smallholders in Northern
Thailand.” Tropical Animal Health and Production 40: 201-208.

Oeltmann, J.E. et al. (2008). "Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Outbreak among US-bound Hmong Refugees,
Thailand, 2005." Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11): 1715-1721.

N.V. Thang and N.T.M. Nguyet. (2008). "Changes in Healing Practices among the Hmong in Vietnam." In D.
McCaskill, P. Leepreecha and S. He, Eds. Living in a Globalized World: Ethnic Minorities in the Greater Mekong
Region. Bangkok: Mekong Press.

Vue, D.C. (2008). "The three eras of Hmong educational history in Laos: French colonial, Laotian
independence, and USAID, 1917--1975." PhD Dissertation, Capella University.

Yang, K. (2008). "A Visit to the Hmong of Asia: Globalization and Ethnicity at the Dawn of the 21st Century."
Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-50. (Text)

Yang, K. (2008). "A Visit to the Hmong of Asia: Globalization and Ethnicity at the Dawn of the 21st Century."
Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-50. (Photo Essay)

Vang, P. Zongrum, O., Sindhuphak, R., and N. Dusitsin. (2007). "Preliminary Study on Thalassemia Screening
and Genetic Counseling in Selective Hmong People in Saraburi Province, Thailand." Hmong Studies Journal Vol
8, 2007

Johnson, T.P. (2007). “Enclothing Identity: A Hmong Girl’s Journey into the Politics of
Identification in Thailand.” Teacher’s College Record 109(7): 1637-1662.

Lee, G.Y. (2007). “The Hmong Rebellion in Laos: Victims or Terrorists.” In A.T.H. Tan, Editor, A Handbook of
Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia. Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar, pp. 352-373.

Duong, H.B. (2006). The Hmong girls of Sa Pa: Local places, global trajectories, hybrid identities. PhD
Dissertation, University of Washington.

Siriphon, A. (2006). “Local Knowledge, Dynamism and the Politics of Struggle: A Case Study of the Hmong in
Northern Thailand.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 37(1): 65-81.

Tomforde, M. (2006). The Hmong Mountains: Cultural Spatiality of the Hmong in Northern
Thailand. Hamburg: Lit Verlag.

Delang, Claudio O. (2005). “The Market for Medicinal Plants in SAPA and Hanoi Vietnam.” Economic
Botany 59(4): 377-385.

Johnson, Tracy Pilar. (2005). The (im)possibilities of becoming: Hmong youth and the politics of schooling and
development in Thailand. PhD Dissertation, Columbia University.

Lee, Gary Yia. (2005). "The Shaping of Traditions: Agriculture and Hmong Society" Hmong Studies Journal, Vol
6, 2005.

Lee, M.N.M. (2005). The dream of the Hmong kingdom: Resistance, collaboration, and legitimacy
under French colonialism (1893--1955). PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Lemoine, Jacques. (2005). "What is the actual number of the (H)mong in the World" Hmong Studies Journal, Vol
6, 2005

Schein, Louisa. (2005). “Marrying Out of Place: Hmong/Miao Women Across and Beyond China.” In Cross-
Border Marriages: Gender and Mobility in Transnational Asia: Editor: Nicole Constable. Philadelphia: University
of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 53-79.

Takeuchi Shosuke. (2005). Laos as Battlefield. Tokyo: Mekong Publishing.

Postert, Christian. (2004). “Completing or Competing? Contexts of Hmong Selfing/Othering in Laos.” In
Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach. Editors: Gerd Baumann and Andre Gingrich. New York:
Berghahn Books, pp. 101-111.

Tapp, Nicholas. (2004). “Hmong Places and Locality.” In Making Place: State Projects, Globalization and Local
Responses in China. Ed. Steven Feuchtwang. London: Cavendish Publishing, 133-148.

Corlin, Claes. (2004). "Hmong and the Land Question in Vietnam: National Policy and Local Concepts of the
Environment." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai,
Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 295-320.

Lee, Gary Yia. (2004). "Transnational Adaptation: An Overview of the Hmong of Laos." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J.,
Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 441-456.

Ovesen, Jan. (2004). "The Hmong and Development in the People's Democratic Republic." In Tapp, N.,
Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp.

Yang, Dao. (2004). "Hmong Refugees from Laos: The Challenge of Social Change." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J.,
Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 477-486.

Leepreecha, Prasit. (2004). "Ntoo Xeeb: Cultural Redefinition for Froest Conservation among the Hmong in
Thailand." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai,
Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 335-352.

Kundstadter, Peter. (2004). "Hmong Marriage Patterns in Thailand in Relation to Social Change." In Tapp, N.,
Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp.

Symonds, Patricia V. (2004). "Following Hmong Cultural Pathways for the Prevention of HIV/AIDS: Notes from
the Field." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai,
Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 353-374.

Tapp, Nicholas. (2004). “Hmong Places and Locality.” In Making Place: State Projects, Globalization and Local
Responses in China. Ed. Steven Feuchtwang. London: Cavendish Publishing, 133-148.

Vuong, Duy Quang. (2004). "The Hmong and Forest Management in Northern Vietnam's Autonomous Areas." In
Tapp, N., Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm
Books, pp. 321-334.

Johnson-Messenger, Tracy. (2003). "Contradictions in Learning how to be Thai: A Case Study of a Young
Hmong Woman." Hmong Studies Journal, 4:1-21

Ballard, Brette M. (2003). “Refugee Reintegration in Rural Areas: Land Distribution in Ban Pha Thao, Lao
PDR.” Working Paper #18 Cambridge, Mass.: The Inter-University Committee on International Migration,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for International Studies (March 2003) 26 Pages. The work may
also be accessed online at:

Tapp, Nicholas and Don Cohn, Eds. (2003). The Tribal Peoples of Southeast Asia: Chinese Views of the Other
Within. Bangkok, Thailand: White Lotus Press.

Tomforde, Maren. (2003). “The Global in the Local: Contested Resource-Use Systems of the Karen and Hmong
in Northern Thailand. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34(2): pp. 347-360.

Lemoine, Jacques (2002). `A propos de Andrew Turton (ed.) Civility and Savagery Social Identity in Tai States:
Civilization (Civilite’? Citoyennete’? Urbanite’? et sauvagerie. From Aseanie 9 (June 2002): 147-175.

Tapp, Nicholas (2002). `A propos de Civility and Savagery Social Identity in Tai States: La perruche et le maitre
Hmong Reponse a’ Jacques Lemoine. Aseanie 10 (December 2002): 197-204.

Delang, Claudio O. (2002). “Deforestation in Northern Thailand: The result of Hmong Farming Practices or Thai
Development Strategies?” Society and Resources 15: 483-501.

Ishida, T; Takao, S; Settheetham-Ishida, W. and Tiwawech, D. (2002). “Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus
infection in rural ethnic populations of Northern Thailand.” Journal of Clinical Virology 24: 31-35.

Tungittiplakorn, Waranoot and Phillip Dearden. (2002). “Biodiversity Conservation and Cash Crop Development
in Northern Thailand.” In Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 2007-2025.

Wezel, A., Steinmuller, N. and J.R. Friederichsen. (2002). “Slope Position Effects on Soil Fertility and Crop
Productivity and Implications for Soil Conservation in Upland Northwest Vietnam.” Agriculture Ecosystems and
Environment 91: (1-3): 113-126.

Leepreecha, P. (2001). Kinship and Identity among Hmong in Thailand. PhD Dissertation, University of

Cohen, E. (2000). The Commercialized Crafts of Thailand: Hill Tribes and Lowland Villages. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. 316 pages.

Christian Culas. (2000). Origins of the Hmong in Laos and Siam in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth
Centuries. From Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples: Mountain Minorities in the Southeast Asian Massif, ed.
Jean Michaud. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. pp. 29-50.

Giang, Ho Ly (2000). “The Food Culture of the Hmong.” Vietnam Social Sciences 6(80): 96-110.

Kossikov, Igor. (2000). “Nationalities Policy in Modern Laos.” In Civility and Savagery: Social Identity in Tai
States. A. Turton, Ed. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 227-244.

Louisirirotchanakul, S. et. al. (2000). “No evidence of HTLV-I or HTLV-II infection among the Hmong people of
northern Thailand or injecting drug users in Bangkok.” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 23
(5): 441-442.

Peter Kundstadter. (2000). Changing Patterns of Economics among Hmong in Northern Thailand: 1960-1990.
From Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples: Mountain Minorities in the Southeast Asian Massif, ed. Jean
Michaud. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. pp. 167-194.

Mansfield, S. (2000). Lao Hill Tribes: Traditions and Patterns of Existence. London: Oxford University Press.
120 pages.

John McKinnon and Jean Michaud. (2000). A Historical Panorama of the Montagnards in Northern Vietnam
under French Rule.

Jean Michaud. (2000). Montagnard Domain in the Southeast Asian Massif. From Turbulent Times and Enduring
Peoples: Mountain Minorities in the Southeast Asian Massif, ed. Jean Michaud. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon
Press. pp. 1-28.

Michaud, Jean and Christian Culas (2000). “The Hmong of the Southeast Asia Massif: Their Recent History of
Migration.” In G. Evans, C. Hutton, and K.K. Eng eds. Where China Meets Southeast Asia: Social and Cultural
Change in the Border Regions Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asia Studies, 98-121.

Nguyen, Van Minh. (2000). “Agricultural Adaptation of the Hmong in Vietnam.” Vietnam Social Sciences 6(80):

Cooper, Robert (Editor) (1998). The Hmong: A guide to traditional lifestyles . Singapore: Times Editions.

Davy, Joseph. (1998) "Repatriation: How Safe Is It?" Hmong Studies Journal Vol. 2 No. 2.

Evans, G. (1998). The Politics of Ritual and Rememberance: Laos Since 1975. Honolulu: University of Hawaii

Freeman, M. (1998). A Golden Souvenir of the Hilltribes of Thailand. 2nd Edition. Bangkok: Asia Books.

Lewis P. and E. (1998). The Peoples of the Golden Triangle. First Paperback Edition.

Thompson, Liz. (1998). The Hmong of Vietnam. Carlton, Vic., Aust.: Heinemann Library.

Beyrer, C. et. al. (1997). “Widely varying HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among the ethnic minority peoples

Brittan, Dolly. (1997). The Hmong (Celebrating the Peoples and Civilizations of Southeast Asia). Rosen
Publishing Group.

Culas, C and Michaud, J. (1997). “A contribution to the study of Hmong (Miao) migrations and history.”

Diep Trung Binh and Barbara Cohen. (1997). Patterns on Textiles of the Ethnic Groups in Northeast of
Vietnam. Hanoi: Culture of Nationalities Publishing House.

Funakawa, S. (1997). “Ecological study on the dynamics of soil organic matter and its related properties in
shifting cultivation systems of Northern Thailand.” SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION. 43(3): 681-693.

Lemoine, J. and Eisenbruch, M. (1997). “The practice of the power of healing by the Hmong shamans and the
cambodian traditional healers of Indochina.” Homme. 37 (144): 69-103.

Mydans, Seth. (1997). Nomads of Laos: last leftovers of the Vietnam War. The New York Times March 12 146:

Brittan, Dolly. (1996). The Hmong. New York: Powderkids Press.

Ireson, Carol J. (1996). Field, Forest, and Family: Women's Work and Power in Rural Laos. Boulder, CO:
Westview Press.

Jacobs, Brian W. (1996). No-win situation: the plight of the Hmong--America's former ally. Boston College Third
World Law Journal. 16:139-66.

Buranasombati, Pises (1995). A Qualitative Study of Low Socioeconomic Status Students In A Predominantly
High Socioeconomic Status In Bangkok, Thailand (Bangkok Business College), PhD dissertation. Illinois State

Giacchino-Baker, R. ed. (1995). Stories from Laos: Folktales and Cultures of the Lao, Hmong, Khammu and Iu-
Mien. El Monte, CA: Pacific Asia Press.

Johns, Michael. (1995, October 23). Acts of betrayal. (persecution of Hmong). National Review, 47(20), 24-25.

Michaud, Jean (1995). Resistance Et Flexibilite: Le Changement Social Et Le Tourisme Dans Un Village Hmong
De Thailande (French Text, Tourism, Hmong, Thailand, Social Change), PhD dissertation. University De
Montreal (Canada).

Moua, H.T. (1995). “Hmong Guerillas on the Run.” Vietnam, June 1995, 34-41.

Oveson, J. 1995. A Minority Enters the Nation State: A Case Study of a Hmong Community in Vientiane
Province, Laos. Uppsala, Sweden: Department of Cultural Anthropology, Uppsala University.

Thao, H. (1995). Hmong Music in Vietnam. Special Issue of Nhac Viet, the Journal of Vietnamese Music, Volume
4, Number 2, Fall 1995.

Xiv, C.Y. (1995). "A Dedication to Touby Lyfoung: The Hmong's First Cabinet Member of the Laotian
Government." Paper reprinted at website. 5 p.

Vang, Lue. (1995). A cultural interpretation of Thai Hmong: beliefs, traditions and values about education and
leadership . Ed.D., University of San Francisco.

Bouapao, Lytou (1994). Perspective D’un Development Rural Durable: Le Cas Des Hmongs Du Laos (French
Text), MSC dissertation. Universite De Sherbrooke (Canada).

Cha, Dia & Small, Cathy A. (1994). Policy lessons from Lao and Hmong women in Thai refugee camps. World
Development , 22(7), 1045-1059.

Renard, Ronald D. (1994). The monk, the Hmong, the forest, the cabbage, fire and water: incongruities in
northern Thailand opium replacement. Law & Society Review. 28(3):657-664.

Anderson, E.F. (1993). Plants and People of the Golden Triangle: Ethnobotany of the Hill Tribes of Northern
Thailand. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press.

Dao, Y. (1993). Hmong at the Turning Point. Minneapolis, MN: World Bridge Associates Ltd.

Kunstadter, P. and others. (1993). “Demographic Variables in Fetal and Child Mortality: Hmong in Thailand.”
Social Science and Medicine 36: 1109-1120.

Lanphier, C.M. (1993). "The Final Phase of Southeast Asian Asylum? - Some Unfinished Business." Refuge:
Canada's Periodical on Refugees, Sept. 1993, 3-7.

McKinnon J. and W. Bhruksasri. (1993). "Highland Populations in Northern Thailand." In Highlanders of
Thailand, McKinnon J. and W. Bhruksasri, eds. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. 36-44.

Ruiz, H.A. (1993). "Hmong Told They Must Choose Resettlement or Repatriation." Refugee Reports, 30 June
1993, 10-12.

Vang, P. (1993). "White Paper on Demonstrations of Hmong Refugees and Letters from the Napho and Ban
Vinai Refugee Camps, Thailand to President Bill Clinton in 1993." Denver: Lao Amerian Human Rights Council.

Barcher, A.C. (1992). First Asylum in Southeast Asia: Customary Norm or Ephemeral Concept?" New York
University Journal of International Law and Politics. 24 (Spring 1992): 1253-1286.

Beemer, B.G. 1992. Hmong Political Behavior in Laos: An Analysis Using Hmong Culture and History.” Senior
Honors Thesis, Brandeis University.

Boyes J. and S. Paraban. 1992. A Life Apart Viewed from the Hills. Bangkok: Silkworm Books.

Chantavanich, S. and others. (1992). The Lao Returnees in the Voluntary Repatriation Programme from
Thailand. Occasional Paper Series, no. 3. Bangkok: Indochinese Refugee Information Center, Institute of Asian
Studies, Chulalongkorn University, 1992.

Grazer, W. and S. Lowman. (1992). "Hmong Refugees in Thailand: The Case Against Forced Resettlement."
Washington D.C.: United States Catholic Conference, Migration and Refugee Services.

Freeman, M. (1992). A Golden Souvenir of the Hilltribes of Thailand. Bangkok: Asia Books.

Lewis, J. ed. (1992). Minority Cultures of Laos: Kammu, Lua, Lahu, Hmong and Iu-Mien. Rancho Cordova, CA:
Southeast Asia Community Resource Center.

Vang, P. (1992). "White Paper on Forced Repatriation of Hmong Refugees from Thailand to Laos." Denver: Lao
Human Rights Council.

Yang, D. (1992). “The Hmong: Enduring Traditions.” In Minority Cultures of Laos: Kammu, Lua’, Lahu, Hmong
and Mien, edited by J. Lewis, 249-326. Rancho Cordova, CA: Southeast Asian Community Resource Center,
Folsom Cordova Unified School District, 1992.

Bradley, D. and Others. (1991). Thai Hill Tribe Phrasebook: Lahu, Lisu, Karen, and other Hill Tribes. Berkeley,
CA: Lonely Planet.

Jilek, W.G. and L. Jilek-Aall. (1991). “The Mental Health Relevance of Traditional Medicine and Shamanism in
Refugee Camps of Northern Thailand.” Curare 13 no. 4: 217-224.

Kesmanee, C. (1991). “Highlanders, Intervention, and Adaptation: A Case Study of the Mong N’jua (Moob
Ntsuab) Village of Pattana.” Master’s Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, 1991.

Robinson, W.C. (1991). "Laotian Refugees in Thailand: The Thai and U.S. Response, 1975-1988." In Laos:
Beyond the Revolution, edited by J.J. Zasloff and L. Unger, 215-240. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Vang, P. (1991). "White Paper on the Murders and Persecution of the Hmong and Laotian Returnees in Laos:
Submitted to the U.S. Congress and President." Denver: Lao Human Rights Council, 1991.

Conroy, T.P. (1990). "Highland Lao Refugees: Repatriation and Resettlement Preferences in Ban Vanai Camp,
Thailand." Bangkok: T.P. Conroy, 1990.

Gunn, G.C. (1990). Rebellion in Laos: Peasant and Politics in a Colonial Backwater. Boulder, CO: Westview
Press, 1990.

Karniol, R. (1990). “Laotian Resistance Emerges from Mist.” International Defense Review 23 (March 1990):

Liu, B.Y. (1990). "Hmong and Mien are All Brothers: A Brief Introduction to the Relations between the Hmong
and Mien Nationalities Written on the Request of Dr. Yang Dao." Hmong Forum, 1:8-16.

Lyman, T. A. (1990). “The Mong (Green Miao) and Their Language: A Brief Compendium.” The Journal of the
Siam Society 78: 63-65.

Podhisita, C., P. Kunstadter, and S.L. Kunstadter. (1990). “Evidence for Early Fertility Transition Among the
Hmong in Northern Thailand.” Journal of Population and Social Studies. 2: 137-155.

Salmon, S. (1990). Transition from Refugee to Villager: An Experience with Hilltribes in Thailand." In Back to a
Future? Voluntary Repatriation of Indochinese Refugees and Displaced Persons in Thailand, ed. by L.
Standley, 111-131. Bangkok: Committee for the Coordination of Services to Displaced Persons in Thailand.

Scott G.M. (1990). “Hmong Aspirations for a Separate State in Laos: The Effects of the Indochina War.” In
Secessionist Movements in Comparative Perspective.” Edited by R. Premdas, S.W.R. de A. Samsarasinghe and
Alan B. Anderson. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Tapp, N. (1990). “Squatters or Refugees: Development and the Hmong.” In Ethnic Groups Across National
Boundaries in Mainland Southeast Asia, edited by G. Wijeyewardene, 149-172. Singapore, Institute of
Southeast Asian Studies.

Xiong, L. (1990). “Hmong Role and Motivation in Support of the French and Americans in the Laotian Civil War,
1945-1975.” Master’s Thesis, Mankato State University

Waters, T. (1990). "Laotian Refugeeism, 1975-1988." In Patterns of Migration in Southeast Asia, edited by R.R.
Reed, 122-152. Berkeley: Centers for South and Southeast Asia Studies, International and Area Studies,
University of California at Berkeley.

Waters, T. (1990). "The Parameters of Refugeeism and Flight: The Case of Laos." Disasters: The Journal of
Disaster Studies and Management 14 (September 1990): 250-258.

Yang, D. (1990). "The Longest Migration." In Hmong Forum 1: 4-7.

Yang, P.K. (1990). “Hmong Involvement in Wars in Laos Before and After 1975.” Master’s Thesis, Mankato
State University.

Lee, G.Y. (1990). "Refugees from Laos: Historical Backgrounds and Causes." Paper reprinted at www. website. 15 p.

Chongvatana, N. and K. Wongboonsin. (1989). Family Planning Programs and Contraceptive Practice in Khao I
Dang and Ban Vinai Refugee Camps: Results of the 1988 Survey. IPS Publication, no. 164/89. Bangkok:
Institute of Population Studies, Chulalongkorn University.

Cohen, E. (1989). “International Politics and the Transformation of Folk Crafts - the Hmong (Meo) of Thailand
and Laos.” Journal of the Siam Society 77: 69-82.

Conklin, N. (1989). “Wealth of the Tribes.” Sawaddi, July 1989, 34-38.

Fraser-Lu, Sylvia. (1989). Handwoven Textiles of South-East Asia. Singapore: Oxford University Press.

Goldrick, R. (1989). Chiang Mai and the Hilltribes. Bangkok: Sangdad Publishing.

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. (1989). "Forced Back and Forgotten: The Human Rights of Laotian
Asylum Seekers in Thailand." New York: Lawyers Committee for Human Rights.

McKinnon J. and B. Vienne, Eds. (1989). Hill Tribes Today: Problems in Change. Bangkok: White Lotus-Orstom.

Tapp, N. (1989). “The Impact of Missionary Christianity Upon Marginalized Ethnic Minorities: The Case of the
Hmong.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 20: 70-95.

Tapp, N. (1989). Sovereignty and Rebellion: The White Hmong of Northern Thailand. Singapore: Oxford
University Press.

Eudey, A. (1988). “Hmong Relocated in Northern Thailand.” Cultural Survival Quarterly, 12, no. 1. Fuller, J.W.
(1988). Topic and Comment in Hmong. Bloomington, IN Indiana University Linguistics Club.

Renard, R.D. et al. (1988). Changes in the Northern Thai Hills: An Examination of the Impact of Hill Tribe
Development Work, 1957-1987, Research Report, no. 42. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Research and Development

Sricharatchanya, P. (1988). "Body Smugglers: Security Forces Crackdown on Thai-Lao Refugee Racket." Far
Eastern Economic Review, 11 February 1988, 26.

Tapp, N. (1988). “Geomancy and Development: The Case of the White Hmong of North Thailand.” Ethnos 53:

Westermeyer, J. (1988). Folk Medicine in Laos: A Comparison Between Two Ethnic Groups.” Social Science
and Medicine 27: 769-778.

Wongspraset, S. (1988). “Impact of the Dhammacarik Bhikkus’ Programme on the Hill Tribes of Thailand.” In
Ethnic Conflict in Buddhist Societies: Sri Lanka, Thailand and Burma, edited by K.M. De Silva, and others, 126-
137. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1988.

Lee, G.Y. (1987). “Ethnic Minorities and National-Building in Laos: the Hmong in the Lao State.” Peninsule 11-
12 (1987): 215-232.

Lemoine, Jacques (1987). Mythes d’origine, mythes d’identification from L’Homme 101, Janv.-Mars 1987 XXVII
(1) : 58-85.

Cooper, R. (1986). “The Hmong of Laos: Economic Factors in Refugee Exodus and Return.” In The Hmong in
Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing and A.S. Deinard, 23-40.

B. Johns and D. Strecker. (1986).The Hmong World. New Haven, CT: Council on Southeast Asian Studies, Yale
Center for International and Area Studies.

Radley, H. (1986). Economic Marginalization and the Ethnic Consciousness of Green Hmong in Northern
Thailand. PhD Dissertation, Oxford University.

Tapp, N. (1986). “Buddhism and the Hmong: A Case Study in Social Adjustment.” Journal of Developing
Societies 2 (April 1986): 68-88.

Tapp, N. (1986). “Geomancy as an Aspect of Upland-Lowland Relationships.” In the Hmong in Transition, edited
by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 87-95.

Tapp, N. (1986). The Hmong People of Thailand: Opium People of the Golden Triangle. Indigenous Peoples
and Development Series Report No. 4. London, England and Cambridge, MA: Anti-Slavery Society and Cultural
Survival, Inc.

Xiong, M. and N.D. Donnelly. (1986). "My Life in Laos." In The Hmong World, Editors, Brenda Johns and David
Strecker, New Haven, CT: Council on Southeast Asia Studies, pp. 200-244.

Lee, G.Y. (1986). "Minority Politics in Thailand: A Hmong Perspective." Paper eprinted at www.hmongnet.
org/hmong-au/ website. 9 p.

Lee, G.Y. (1986). "Tribal Socio-economic Change: Dream and Reality." Paper reprinted at www.hmongnet.
org/hmong-au/ website. 7 p.

Cohen, P.T. (1985). “Opium and the Karen. A Study of Indebtedness in Northern Thailand.” Journal of
Southeast Asian Studies 15(March 1985): 150-65.

Kundstadter, P. (1985). “Health of Hmong in Thailand: Risk Factors, Morbidity and Mortality in Comparison with
other Ethnic Groups.” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 9 (December 1985): 329-351.

Mottin, J. (1984). “A Hmong Shaman’s Séance.” Asian Folklore Studies 43: 99-108

Chagnon, J. and R. Rumpf (1983). “Decades of Division for the Lao Hmong.” Southeast Asia Chronicle 91
(October 1983): 10-15.

Hinton, P. (1983). “Why the Karen Do Not Grow Opium: Competition and Contradiction in the Highlands of North
Thailand.” Ethnology 22 (January 1983): 1-16.

Kunstadter, P. (1983). “Cultural Ideals, Socioeconomic Change, and Household Composition: Karen Lua’,
Hmong and Thai in Northwestern Thailand.” In Households: Comparative and Historical Studies of the Domestic
Group, edited by R. Mcc Netting, RR. Wilk, and E.J. Arnould, 299-329. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of
California Press, 1984.

Lee, Gary Yia (1982). National Minority Policies and the Hmong. In Contemporary Laos: Studies in the Politics
and Society of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Martin Stuart-Fox, ed., pp. 199-219.

Mottin, Jean (1980). History of the Hmong. Bangkok: Odeon Store.

Mottin, J. (1980). 55 Chants D’Amour Hmong Blanc. Bangkok: Don Bosco Press.

Mottin, Jean (1980) Contes et Legendes Hmong Blanc. Bangkok: Don Bosco Press.

Mottin, Jean (1980) Fetes du Nouvel An Chez les Hmong Blanc de Thailande. Bangkok: Don Bosco Press.

Cooper, Robert G. (1979). The Yao Jua Relationship: Patterns of Affinal Alliance and Residence Among the
Hmong of Northern Thailand. Ethnology 28:173-181.

Kunstadter, Peter (1979). Hmong (Meo) Highlander Merchants in Lowland Thai Markets: Spontaneous
Development of Highland-Lowland Interactions. Paper read at the Workshop on Agro-Forestry for Rural
Communities, University of Chiangmai, Thailand, 12-16 November, 1979.

Vang Tou-Fu (1979). The Hmong of Laos. In An Introduction to Indochinese History, Culture, Language, and
Life, John Whitemore, ed. pp. 93-102. Ann Arbor: Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of

Bertrais, Yves (1978). The Traditional Marriage Among the White Hmong of Thailand and Laos. Chiang Mai,
Thailand: Hmong Center.

Cooper, Robert G. (1978) (a). Dynamic Tension: Symbiosis and Contradiction in Hmong Social Relations. In
The New Economic Anthropology, John Clammer, ed. pp. 138-175. London: MacMillan Press.

Cooper, Robert G. (1978) (b). Unity and Division in Hmong Social Categories in Thailand. In Studies in ASEAN
Sociology, Peter Chen and Hans-Dieter Evers, eds. pp. 297-320. Singapore: Chopmen Enterprises.

Keen, F. G. B. (1978). Ecological Relationships in a Hmong (Meo) Economy. In Farmers in the Forest:
Economic Development and Marginal Agriculture in Northern Thailand, Peter Kunstadter, E. C. Champan, S.
Sakhasi, eds. pp. 210-221. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1978). Note on the Name “Green Miao.” Nachrichten 123:82-87.

Dhamaraso Bhikkhu and Virojano Bhikkhu (1977). The Historical Background and Tradition of the Meo.
Bangkok: Suksa Samphan.

Kauffmann, Hans E. (1977). Review of The Religion of the Hmong Njua by Nusit Chindarsi. Journal of the Siam
Society 65(1):390-392.

Marlowe, D. H. (1977). Review of Migrants of the Mountains by W. R. Geddes. Journal of Asian Studies 36(3):

Andrianoff, David I. (1976). Hmong Retribalization. Unpub M.A. Thesis, SUNY Binghamton.

Chindarsi, Nusit (1976). The Religion of the Hmong Njua. Bangkok: The Siam Society. [299.5919 N942]

Cooper, Robert G. (1976). Social Change Among Hmong Opium Producers of Northwest Thailand. Unpublished
Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hull.

Geddes, William R. (1976). Migrants of the Mountains: The Cultural Ecology of the Blue Miao (Hmong Njua) of
Thailand. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [301.9593 G267]

Lyman, Thomas A. (1976). Ethno-Zoology of the Green Miao (Mong Njua) of Naan Province, Northern Thailand.
Napa, CA: Graphics Department, Napa College.

Yang, Dao (1976). The Hmong of Laos in the Vanguard of Development. Translation of Les Hmong du Laos
Face au Developpement. Vientiane, Laos: Siasavath Publishers. National Technical Information Service, order
no. JPRS L/5562.

Gua, Bo (1975). Opium, Bombs and Trees: The Future of the H’mong Tribesmen in Northern Thailand. Journal
of Contemporary Asia 5:70-81.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1975). Ethnological Journey: An account of Travels in Northern Thailand in Quest of the
Miao (Meo) Tribe. Napa, CA: Graphics Department, Napa College.

Yang, Dao (1975). Les Hmongs du Laos Face Au Developpement. Vientiane: Siaosavath Publishers.

Adams, Monni (1974). Dress and Design in Highland Southeast Asia: The Hmong (Miao) and the Yao. Textile
Museum Journal 4(1):51-66.

Garrett, W.E., "The Hmong of Laos: No Place to Run." National Geographic Magazine, January 1974. 78-111.

Westermeyer, J. (1974). Opium Smoking in Laos: A Survey of 40 Addicts. American Journal of Pschiatry 131:

Clark, R. B. (1973). Meo: Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and Burma. In Peoples of the Earth, pp. 92-97. Verona:
Danbury Press, Arnaldo Mondadori.

Marks, Thomas A. (1973). The Meo Hill Tribe Problem in North Thailand. Asian Survey 13:929-944.

Lemoine, J. (1972). Les ecritures du Hmong. Bulletin des Amis du Royaume Lao, Vientiane 7-8: 123-165.

Lemoine, Jacques (1972). L’initiation du mort chez les Hmong. I. Le Chemin, II. Les themes, III. Les themes. L’
homme XII(1):105-134, XII(2):85-125, XII(3):84-110.

Lemoine, Jacques (1972). Un village Hmong Vert du haut Laos. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique. [301.9594 L544]

Binney, George A. (1971) The Social and Economic Organization of Two White Meo Communities in Northern
Thailand. Washington, D.C.: Wildlife Management Inst. National Technical Information Service, order no. AD
882 88L.

Bumke, Peter J. (1971). Die Miao: Sozialgeschichte und politische organization einer segmentaren Gesellshaft
und die Auwirkungen der Thailandischen Minderheitenpolitik. Wiesbaden: In Kommission bei Otto Harrassowitz.

Ridenour, George Allen (1971). Rural Development in Laos and Governmental Relationships with the Meo
Ethnic Minority. Unpub M.S. Thesis, Cornell University.

Westermeyer, J. (1971). The Use of Alcohol and Opium among by the Meo of Laos. American Journal of
Psychiatry 127: 59-63.

Buhler, Alfred (1972). Hanfverarbeitung und Batik bei den Meau in Nordthailand. Ethnologishe Zeitschrift Zurich
1, 1972, pp. 61-81. Bern: Verlag Herbert Lang.

Department of the Army (1970). The Meo. Chapter 10 in Minority Groups in Thailand. Department of the Army
PAM #550-107, pp. 537-687. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Offices.

Department of the Army (1970). The Yao. Chapter 11, Ibid., pp. 687-759.

Geddes, William R. (1970). Opium and the Miao: A Study in Ecological Adjustment. Oceania 41(1):1-11.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1970). The “Mong” of Thailand vs. The “Hmong” of Laos, A Preliminary Research Sketch.
Asia Aakhanee: Southeast Asian Survey 2(3):26-28, March 1970.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1970). The Meo Tribesmen, A New Force in Laos in Laos. Asia Aakhanee: Southeast Asian
Survey 2(3):26-28, March 1970.

Manndorff, Hans (1970). Beobachtungen uber das Neujahrsfest (Pe Tschou) der Miao Nordthailands, ihren
Kulturheros You-Schou und die zwolf Familien-Namen Gruppen (Seng). Ethnologische Zeitschrift Zurich, Bern,
vol 1: 75-83.

Mareschal, Eric [1970]. La musique des Hmong. Chez l’auteur: 18, Boul. Edgar Quinet. 75014. Paris.

Vidal, J. E. and J. Lemoine (1970). Contribution a l’ethnobotanique des Hmong du Laos. Journal d’Argiculture
tropicale et de Botanique appliquee 17:1

Deaton, Brady, and Thomas A. Lyman (1969). Types of Miao Hill-Rice. Asia Aakhanee: Southeast Asian Survey

Deaton, Brady, and Thomas A. Lyman (1969). Green Miao (Meo) Agricultural Terms. Asia Aakhanee:
Southeast Asian Survey 1(3):42-47.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1969). Miao (Meo) Slash-and-Burn Agriculture. Journal d’Agriculture tropicale et de
Botanique appliguee 16(6,7,8)251-283.

Military Research and Development Center (1969). Meo Handbook. Bangkok, Thailand: Joint Thai-U.S. Military
Research and Development Center. National Technical Information Service, order no. AD 860 430.

Pierson, Ch. L. and Yves Bertrais (1969) Project d’animation rurale en milieu montagnard Hmong. Vientiane:
Mission Catholique, Centre d’Apostolat Hmong.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1968). Green Miao (Meo) Spirit-Ceremonies. Ethnologica (n.f.) 4:1-28.

Morechand, Guy (1968). Le chamanisms des Hmong. Bulletin de l’Ecole francaise d’extreme-Orient 54:53-294.
[069 qEc73 v.54]

Westermeyer, J. (1968). The Use of Alcohol and Opium Among Two Ethnic Groups in Laos. Unpublished Master’
s Thesis, University of Minnesota.

Barney, G. Linwood (1967) The Meo of Xieng Khouang Province, Laos. In Southeast Asian Tribes, Minorities,
and Nations, Peter Kunstadler, ed. pp. 271-294. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Binney, George A. (1967). Social Structure and Shifting Agriculture of the White Meo. Technical Report.
National Technical Information Service, order no. AD 655-931.

Dinh-dang-Dinh (1967). The Meo National Minority, North-West Vietnam. Hanoi: Xunhasaba.

Ruey Yih-Fu (1967). A Study of the Miao People. In Symposium on Historical, Archaeological and Linguistic
Studies, F. S. Drake, ed. pp. 49-58. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Keen, F. G. B. (1966). The Meo of North-West Thailand. Wellington, New Zealand: R. E. Owen, Government
Printer. (M.A. Thesis)

LeBar, Frank M., et al. (1964). Miao-Yao. In Ethnic Groups of Mainland Southeast Asia, pp. 63-93. New Haven:
Human Relations Area Files Press.

Schafer, R. (1964). Miao-Yao. Monumenta Serica 23: 398-411.

Bouapha, Thongsar (1963). The Story of the Meo People. Bill Taylor, ed. Vientiane: US AID-RDD-IVS-LAOS.

Saihoo, Patya (1963). The Hill Tribes of Northern Thailand and the Opium Problem Bulletin on Narcotics 15(2):

Lyman, Thomas A. (1962). The Mong Njua: A Meo (Miao) Tribe of Northern Thailand. Notes on general
characteristics. (unpublished)

Lyman, Thomas A. (1962). The Weaving Technique of the Green Miao. Ethnos 27:35-39.

Ruey Yih-Fu (1962). The Miao: Their Origin and Southern Migration. In Second Biennial Conference
Proceedings. Taipei: International Association of Historians of Asia.

Young, Gordon (1962). The Blue Meo, White Meo, and Gua M’ba Meo (Maeo, Miao). Chapters in The Hill
Tribes in Northern Thailand, 2nd Edition, pp. 34-39. Bangkok: The Siam Society.

Barney, G. Linwood (1957) (a). The Meo - - An Incipient Church. Practical Anthropology 4(2):31-50.

Barney, G. Linwood (1957) (b). Christianity: Innovation in Meo Culture. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of
Minnesota. [378.7 M66 qOB2647]

Smalley, William A. (1956). The Gospel and the Cultures of Laos. Practical Anthropology 3(3):47-57.

Blofeld, John (1955). Some Hill Tribes of North Thailand (Miaos and Yaos). Journal of the Siam Society 43(1):1-

Morechand, Guy (1955). Principaux traits du chamanisme Meo Blanc en Indochine. Bulletin de l’Ecole francaise
d’Extreme-Orient 47:509-546.

Roux, Henri, and Tran Van Chu (1954). Quelques minorities ethniques du Nord Indochine. Chapter V Les Meo
ou Miao-Tseu. France-Asie 10(93):135-419.

Anonymous (1952) Dans les montagnes du Haut Laos: “Les curieuses tribus meos.” The French Union.

Morechand, Guy (1952). Notes demographiques sur un canton meo blanc du pays tai. Bulletin de la Societe
Etudes Indochinises 27:355-361.

Bourotte, B. (1943). Mariages et funerailles chez les Meo blancs de la region de Nong-Het (Tran Ninh). Bulletin
de l’Institute pour l’Etude de l’Homme, Hanoi 6:33-56.

Cresson, Michael (1943). Le people meo. Indochine 4th year no. 142 May 20, 1943.

Cresson and R. Jeannin (1943). La toile Meo. Bulletin de l’Institute pour l’Etude de l’Homme, Hanoi 6:435-447.

Marquet, Jean (1929). Au pays meo. Moniteur d’Indochine 525-526, April 13 and 20.

Sebastian, E. G., transl. (1925). The Yao, translation of a paper written by N. C. S. Yanawada and L.
Nonwakorn. Journal of the Siam Society 17(3):153-189.

Savina, F. M. (1924) (b). Histoire des Miao. Hong Kong: Imprimerie de la Societe des Missions-Etrangeres.
[301.951 Sa94]

Seidenfaden, Erik, transl. (1923). The White Meo, translation of a paper written by L. B. Dhuraratsadorn.
Journal of the Siam Society 17(3):153-189.

Raquez, A. (1910). Chez les Meos du Tran Ninh. Review Indochine 9(Sept): 924-927.

Spire, G. (1904). De quelques coutumes medicales de Meos in Tranninh. Annales d’Hygiene et de Medecine
Coloniales VII:450.

Girard, Henri (1901). Notes sur les Meos du Haut Tonkin, Mans et Meos: Notes anthropometriques et
ethnographiques. Paris: Imprimerie nationale.