ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION: The Hmong Studies Resource Newsletter has for 5 years provided a very
unique and consistent source of up-to-date information about new works in Hmong Studies and
Hmong-related research resources. To access back issues of this online publication dating back to
2001 visit:

Comprehensive and frequently updated online subject bibliographies of Hmong Studies works are available at:


The work of the Hmong Resource Center is to provide information to Hmong and non-Hmong for the
purpose of promoting positive race relations, human rights, multicultural education, information about
cross-cultural health and medicine, teacher education, family literacy education and community-based
research. The Hmong Resource Center is fairly unique in that it is a Hmong community organization-
controlled collection with both a community and a scholarly focus. The collection is located in the Hmong
community, above a Hmong grocery, and in a building with a large number of Hmong businesses and
organizations, making it highly accessible to both members of the community as well as students and
scholars from the wider community who through visiting have the opportunity to experience the Hmong
community within a primarily Hmong environment that is physically part of the community adding an
important multicultural learning and participatory dimension that is not available on any college campus. The
Hmong Resource Center's Hmong Studies scholarly collections include several hundred books, more than 700
academic journal articles, 250 theses and dissertations, 300 videos and more than 3000 newspaper articles.

The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday
from 9 AM – 6 PM. The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at
995 University Avenue, Suite 214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Online Resource Center Catalog: or Walk-ins are welcome and there are many displays to look at that teach about the
Hmong people, their history, their culture and their experience in the U.S. over the past 25 years. Larger
group tours and educational sessions may be arranged in advance.



Tracy Pilar Johnson. (2005). The (im)possibilities of becoming: Hmong youth and the politics of
schooling and development in Thailand. PhD Dissertation, Columbia University.
This PhD study
examines the varied and multiple conceptions of history, ethnicity and culture embedded in three curricula
available to a Thai public school operating in a Hmong village: the Thai national curriculum; a Hmong & local or ;
indigenous curriculum, the laksut thongthin recently developed by the Hill Tribe Development Organization
(HTDF); and a version of the laksut thongthin taught by one particular Hmong villager. Each of these curricula,
in their varied ways, attempted to articulate a particular sense of Hmongness as well as a particular sense of
Thainess. In turn, these identifications are embedded in discourses of what it means to be modern and civilized
in Thailand today and are productive of specific cultural practices. In this way these curricula attempted to
structure how Hmong youth use the identifications proposed to them within the setting of the Ban Rongrian
school as they negotiate varied understandings of their current and future place in Thai society. The author
also draws on various symbolic statements to demonstrate the different ways in which Hmong and Thai
identifications were constructed and manipulated by four groups of stakeholders: the HTDF, the Thai teachers
of Ban Rongrian, the Hmong residents of Ban Rongrian, and their youth. The author analyzes these statements
in relation to the various discourses of ethnicity and cultural identification, and the language ideologies that are
entwined with these discourses, that each group draws upon in their efforts to articulate Hmong and Thai
identifications. The author argues that each group's attempt to represent particular views of Hmongness and ;
Thainess demonstrate the extent to which people do not have particular histories, cultures or identities. Rather
individuals and groups construct their cultural forms and their identities within and against the politics of cultural
representation during the current era of globalization and the attendant restructuring of such notions such as
the local and the global.

Academic Journal Articles/Other

Lesley M Butler, Paul K Mills, Richard C Yang, Moon S Chen, Jr. (2005). "Hepatitis B Knowledge and
Vaccination Levels in California Hmong Youth: Implications for Liver Cancer Prevention Strategies."
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 6(3): 401-3.
Although chronic infection with hepatitis B virus
(HBV) is one of the major risk factors for liver cancer, the level of knowledge about liver cancer risk factors and
HBV transmission, as well as vaccination have not been previously assessed in the Hmong population. The
authors of this article interviewed Hmong youth living in Fresno, California about liver cancer risk factors.
General knowledge of HBV was common, but knowledge of specific modes of transmission was low. For
example, only 49% of the informants knew that HBV was transmitted by sexual intercourse. The authors also
observed very low prevalence of HBV vaccination (12%), although a majority reported knowing that shots can
prevent disease (68%). Liver cancer prevention and control methods targeted to Hmong youth are needed.
This article may be viewed electronically at the following link:

Patrick F. Clarkin. (2005). "Methodological Issues in the Anthropometric Assessment of Hmong
Children in the United States." American Journal of Human Biology 17: 787-195.
The effectiveness of
the body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) in assessing overweight/obesity may be diminished in populations of short
stature. In a sample (n = 79) of Hmong refugee children in the United States, of age 4-11 years, the author of
this study observed that median z scores for height, BMI, and the triceps skinfold were -1.04z, +0.53z, and +0.
18z, respectively. Further, 41.7% of children were above the NHANES 85th percentile for BMI-for-age,
categorizing them as overweight/obese. Assessment of obesity by other established criteria for children, such
as the triceps skinfold and body fat percentage, produced significantly lower estimates than did BMI. The
author of the study notes that this finding is consistent with patterns found in other stunted populations,
suggesting that BMI be employed in conjunction with other methods when assessing overweight/obesity in
these groups. Finally, the author notes that although stunting and overweight/obesity were both common in this
study, at the individual level height z scores were positively correlated to z scores of various measures of

Jessica R. Goodkind. (2005). "Effectiveness of a Community-Based Advocacy and Learning Program
for Hmong Refugees." American Journal of Community Psychology. 36(3/4): 387-408.
The effectiveness
of a community-based advocacy and learning intervention for Hmong refugees was assessed by the author
using a comprehensive, multi-method strategy, which included a within-group longitudinal design with four data
collection points and in-depth qualitative recruitment and post-intervention interviews. The intervention's impact
on five aspects of refugee well-being was examined: Participants' psychological well-being, quality of life,
access to resources, English proficiency, and knowledge for the U.S. citizenship exam. Twenty-eight Hmong
adults and 27 undergraduate students participated together in the Michigan-based study, which had two major
components: (1) Learning Circles, which involved cultural exchange and one-on-one learning opportunities for
Hmong adults, and (2) an advocacy component that involved undergraduates advocating for and transferring
advocacy skills to Hmong families to increase their access to resources in their communities. Undergraduate
paraprofessionals and Hmong participants worked together for 6–8 hr per week for 6 months. Growth trajectory
analysis revealed promising quantitative findings. Participants' quality of life, satisfaction with resources,
English proficiency, and knowledge for the U.S. citizenship test increased and their levels of distress decreased
over the course of the intervention. Mediating analyses suggested that participants' increased quality of life
could be explained by their improved satisfaction with resources. Qualitative data helped to support and explain
the quantitative data, as well as providing insight into other outcomes and processes of the intervention. Policy,
practice, and research implications are also discussed by the author.

Gail G. Harrison, Marjorie Kagawa-Singer, Susan B. Foerster, Henry Lee, Loan Pham Kim, Uyen
Nguyen, Allyn Fernandez-Ami, Valerie Quinn and Dileep G. Bal. (2005). "Seizing the moment:
California's opportunity to prevent nutrition-related health disparities in low-income Asian American
populations." Cancer 104(S12): 2962-2968.
The authors of this article note that Asian Americans and Pacific
Islanders (AAPI) have the fastest growing rate of overweight and obese children. Aggressive programs are
urgently needed to prevent unhealthy acculturation-related changes in diet and physical activity and to
promote the healthier aspects of traditional lifestyle habits. The authors of this study conducted focus groups
and key informant interviews to explore knowledge, attitudes, dietary practices, and physical activity levels
among three low-income Asian American ethnic groups, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hmong, in California.
Content analysis was used to identify similarities and differences among the groups. Several common health
beliefs clearly emerged. Participants noted the importance of fresh (not frozen) fruit and vegetable
consumption and physical activity for general health. The concept of good health included having a
harmonious family, balance, and mental and emotional stability. All groups also expressed the general belief
that specific foods have hot or cold properties and are part of the Yin/Yang belief system common to Asian
cultures. The lure of fast food, children's adoption of American eating habits, and long work hours were
identified as barriers to a healthy, more traditional lifestyle. A California campaign for Asian Americans using
multilevel strategies is recommended by the authors to counteract the alarming rise of obesity among AAPI
youth. Strategies directed to individual, community, and policy levels should emphasize maintenance of healthy
traditional diets, informed selection of mainstream U.S. foods, and promotion of active lifestyles to prevent an
impending burden from cancer and nutrition-related chronic diseases in AAPI populations.

Paul K Mills, Richard C. Yang, and Deborah Riordan. (2005). "Cancer Incidence in the Hmong in
California, 1988-2000." Cancer Supplement 104(12): 2969-2974.
As observed by the authors of this article,
previous studies of cancer in the Hmong population have indicated that Hmong experience an elevated risk of
gastric, hepatic, cervical, and nasopharyngeal cancers and experience a reduced risk of breast, prostate, lung,
and colorectal cancers. Approximately 65,000 Hmong live in California, where there has been a population-
based cancer registry since 1988, and the authors of this study used these data to calculate age-adjusted
cancer incidence rates and to examine disease stage and tumor grade at diagnosis. Changes in rates during
the period studied also were evaluated. These rates and proportions were compared with rates among the non-
Hispanic white (NHW) and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) populations of California. Between 1988 and 2000, a
total of 749 Hmong in California were diagnosed with invasive cancer, and the age-adjusted rate of cancer for
the Hmong was 284 per 100,000 population, compared with 362.6 and 478 per 100,000 in the API and NHW
populations, respectively. The age-adjusted incidence rates of cancer in the Hmong were elevated for hepatic,
gastric, cervical, and nasopharyngeal cancers and for leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Rates were
lower in the Hmong for colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate cancers. For gastric cancer and lung cancer, age-
adjusted rates increased between 1988 and 2000 in the Hmong, although breast cancer incidence declined.
Cervical cancer incidence increased, rates of NHL were declining, and rates for colorectal cancer remained
steady between 1988 and 2000. The authors observed that the Hmong experienced later disease stage at
diagnosis than other API and generally poorer grade of disease at diagnosis. Hmong experienced lower overall
invasive cancer incidence rates than API or NHW populations in California. However, they experienced higher
rates of hepatic, gastric, cervical, and nasopharyngeal cancers; and, for most types of cancer, they were
diagnosed in a later disease stage.

Daniel J. McCarty. (2005). "Glucose Intolerance in Wisconsin's Hmong Population." Wisconsin
Medical Journal 104(5): 13-14.
The author of this article notes that rapid change from traditional to
westernized lifestyles almost always results in higher rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether a
population develops these metabolic problems is dependent on the interaction of their genetic susceptibility
and the extent to which they adopt the high fat, high caloric diets and lower levels of physical activity
characteristic of modern lifestyles. The author writes that persons of Hmong origin like many ethnic groups,
such as North American Indians, Mexican Americans, Australian Aborigines, Pacific Islanders, Asian Indians,
and Chinese are particularly susceptible to developing obesity and glucose intolerance. Immigrants of these
ethnicities who settle in developed countries face a particularly high risk, especially offspring who may be more
likely than their parents to adopt westernized diets and low levels of physical activity. This article may be viewed
electronically at the following link:

Rita A. Sperstad and Joan Stehle Werner. (2005). "Coming to the Cultural "In-Between": Nursing
Insights From a Hmong Birth Case Study." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing
34(6): 682-688.
This research article discusses the historical background and traditional beliefs of the Hmong.
Cultural conflict occurs when traditional Hmong beliefs and Western health care ideologies are misunderstood.
A specific case study focuses on care of a Hmong woman and her husband after a precipitous birth,
hemorrhage, and surgical intervention. Nursing insights are identified from "in-between" the cultures. The
authors argue that establishing cultural awareness is an essential first step toward cultural competence.


2005 Hmong Culture Resource Center User Stats

From January 1 to December 31, 2005:

Total number of visitors: 1427
% Hmong: 43%
% Non-Hmong: 57%
Over the age of 18:  90%
Under the age of 18: 10%
Local resident: 93%
Non-local resident: 7%
Academic Users (Affiliated with College or University): 23%

Academic-Affiliated Users
•        University of Minnesota: 108
•        Metropolitan State University: 52
•        University of St. Thomas: 39
•        University of Wisconsin- River Falls: 19
•        Macalester: 14
•        Hamline University: 12
•        Concordia University-St. Paul  - 11
•        College of Saint Scholastica - 9
•        St. Cloud State University: 8
•        Bethel University: 8
•        Augsburg College - 6
•        St. Mary's University: 6
•        College of St. Catherine: 5
•        Century College: 4
•        St. Olaf: 3
•        Minnesota State University, Mankato: 3
•        Concordia- Moorhead: 2
•        Argosy University: 2
•        North Central University – 2
•        North Hennepin Community College - 2
•        College of Saint Benedict – 1
•        Gustuvus Adolphus - 1
•        Saint Paul College – 1
•        Inver Hills Community College - 1
•        UW-Stout – 2
•        University of Wisconsin- La Crosse: 1
•        UW-Madison - 1
•        George Washington University: 1
•        Gonzaga University: 2
•        Rutgers University - 1
•        University of Passau-Germany – 4
•        Doshisha University: 1


This very special session will include presentations of recent research in Hmong Studies from
the recently printed Volume 6 of the Hmong Studies Journal, the only peer-reviewed
academic journal devoted to Hmong Studies (

Monday, February 20, 2006, 11 a.m. - 1 p.m.

Location: Nolte Center for Continuing Education, 125, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Campus

Session Presenters

Dr. Mark E. Pfeifer (Editor of Hmong Studies Journal and Director, Hmong
Resource Center Library of the Hmong Cultural Center), “Overview of the Hmong
Studies Journal and its Contribution to Scholarship related to Hmong.”

Dr. Dia Cha (Saint Cloud State University), "Hmong and Lao Refugee Women:
Reflections of a Hmong-American Woman Anthropologist."

Dr. Robert Entenmann (St. Olaf College), "The Myth of Sonom, the Hmong

Dr. Daniel Detzner (University of Minnesota), “Immigrant Family Strengths: A
Comparison of Hmong and Somali Families.”

Dr. Zha Blong Xiong (University of Minnesota), “Linking Parent-Adolescent
Relationships to Adolescent Problem Behavior in Hmong Families."

This event is Co-sponsored by the
Asian American Studies Program and the Institute for Advanced
Study of the University of Minnesota and the Hmong Cultural Center. Questions? Please contact

Hmong Studies Journal Event Flyer (PDF Format)


The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center has published the physical hard copy
edition of volume 6 of the Hmong Studies Journal. An internet-based journal, The Hmong Studies
Journal is the only peer-reviewed academic publication devoted to the scholarly discussion of
Hmong history, Hmong culture, Hmong people, and other facets of the Hmong experience in the U.
S., Asia and around the world. The Hmong Studies Journal has published 8 online issues in 6
volumes with a total of 43 scholarly articles since 1996.


Recent Works in Hmong Studies: Annotated Bibliography by Mark E. Pfeifer, Hmong Resource
Center Library, Hmong Cultural Center, Saint Paul.

Who is Hmong? Questions and Evidence from the U.S. Census by Wayne Carroll and Victoria
Udalova, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire.

Hmong and Lao Refugee Women: Reflections of a Hmong-American Woman Anthropologist by Dia
Cha, Saint Cloud State University.

Hmong Resettlement in French Guiana by Patrick F. Clarkin, University of Massachusetts, Boston.

The Myth of Sonom, the Hmong King; by Robert Entenmann, Saint Olaf College

Hmong Cosmology: Proposed Model, Preliminary Insights by Vincent K. Her, University of Wisconsin-

The Shaping of Traditions: Agriculture and Hmong Society by Gary Yia Lee

What is the actual number of the (H)mong in the World by Jacques Lemoine

Hmong Refugees Death Fugue by Sheng-mei Ma, Michigan State University

Continuing the promise: Recruiting and preparing Hmong-American educators for Central
Wisconsin by Leslie McClain-Ruelle, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point and Kao Xiong,
University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Southeast Asian Fathers Experiences with Adolescents: Challenges and Change by Zha Blong Xiong
and Daniel F. Detzner, University of Minnesota.

Research Notes from the Field: Tracing the Path of the Ancestors A Visit to the Hmong in China by
Kou Yang, California State University, Stanislaus.

Also available for order are four additional unique scholarly publications – An Annotated
Bibliography of Hmong-Related Works 1996-2004, Hmong 2000 Census Publication in collaboration
with Hmong National Development and several scholars of Hmong-American Studies and two
previous issues of the Hmong Studies Journal.

Click this link for further information about these publications as well as ordering info

Click this link to view the electronic edition of the Hmong Studies Journal Volume 6

DEADLINE  MAY 31, 2006

The Hmong Studies Journal invites article submissions for its 2006 issue (Volume 7).

The Hmong Studies Journal is a unique and established peer-reviewed Internet-based
academic publication devoted to the scholarly discussion of Hmong history, Hmong
culture, Hmong people, and other facets of the Hmong experience in the U.S., Asia and
around the world. The Hmong Studies Journal has published 8 online issues since

Hmong Studies-related scholarly articles from all disciplinary backgrounds and
perspectives are welcome. Works considered for submission must consist of original
research and not have been previously published elsewhere. Book reviews are
welcome but works consisting primarily of non-original literature reviews of other works
generally are not accepted. Neither are works that consist primarily of political-oriented
commentary. Articles for submission review should be sent on diskette or by e-mail
attachment to Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD Director, Hmong Resource Center, Hmong Cultural
Center, 995 University Avenue, Suite 214, Saint Paul, MN 55104, e-mail: or to Anne Frank, Librarian, Southeast Asian Archive,
University of California, Irvine, The UCI Libraries, P.O. Box 19557, Irvine, CA
92623-9557, e-mail:

Please note: As a peer-reviewed journal, the Hmong Studies Journal reserves the right
to suggest and request revisions to any submitted article. The editors and editorial
board of the Hmong Studies Journal will review all articles and subsequent drafts for
possible submission and will decide whether articles are to be accepted or declined.

Manuscripts should be submitted in the "Uniform scholarly article format" and organized, as follows:

1.  Abstract
2.  Introduction/Background
3.  Methods [and Material]
4.  Results
5.  Discussion
6.  References

To view all of the articles in the past issues of the Hmong Studies Journal visit:


Hmong National Development’s Annual Hmong National Conference will be held at the downtown
Hilton Minneapolis from March 17-19, 2006. This conference which will feature 90 workshops in a
preconference and conference sessions is by far the largest of its kind in the United States. Please
visit for the Call for Papers form and other information about
the largest and most established annual conference of its kind in the United States. Newly added
this year is the opportunity for high school and college students to present their projects in poster
presentation sessions.


Information about and a registration form for the comprehensive three hour diversity training
workshop to be provided by Hmong Cultural Center in Saint Paul Friday, February 10 and Friday,
March 10 is available by
clicking here:

The Building Bridges outreach program is supported by grants from the Saint Paul Foundation, the
Otto Bremer Foundation, The Saint Paul Travelers Foundation, the Marbrook Foundation and the
Minnesota Humanities Commission with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
More info about the program is
available here


The Hmong Resource Center is partnering with Craig Rice to provide up-to-date content related to
community educational events, Hmong resources and Hmong Studies for the WWW Hmong
Homepage. Craig Rice co-founded the WWW Hmong Homepage in early 1994. The website was one
of the first to provide substantive educational resources related to Hmong-Americans and Hmong
around the world. The WWW Hmong Homepage is still one of the most heavily visited and linked
educational websites related to the Hmong. To view the WWW Hmong Homepage and learn about
upcoming educational events visit:


A moderated message board intended as a forum for information about existing and new
research resources in Hmong Studies is available at: