ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION: The Hmong Studies Resource Newsletter has for 5 years provided a very
unique and consistent source of up-to-date information about new works in Hmong Studies and
Hmong-related research resources. To access back issues of this online publication dating back to
2001 visit:

Comprehensive and frequently updated online subject bibliographies of Hmong Studies works are available at:


The work of the Hmong Resource Center is to provide information to Hmong and non-Hmong for the
purpose of promoting positive race relations, human rights, multicultural education, information about
cross-cultural health and medicine, teacher education, family literacy education and community-based
research. The Hmong Resource Center is fairly unique in that it is a Hmong community organization-
controlled collection with both a community and a scholarly focus. The collection is located in the Hmong
community, above a Hmong grocery, and in a building with a large number of Hmong businesses and
organizations, making it highly accessible to both members of the community as well as students and
scholars from the wider community who through visiting have the opportunity to experience the Hmong
community within a primarily Hmong environment that is physically part of the community adding an
important multicultural learning and participatory dimension that is not available on any college campus. The
Hmong Resource Center's Hmong Studies scholarly collections include several hundred books, more than 700
academic journal articles, 250 theses and dissertations, 300 videos and more than 3000 newspaper articles.

The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday
from 9 AM – 6 PM. The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s offices at
995 University Avenue, Suite 214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. E-Mail: Online Resource Center Catalog: or Walk-ins are welcome and there are many displays to look at that teach about the
Hmong people, their history, their culture and their experience in the U.S. over the past 25 years. Larger
group tours and educational sessions may be arranged in advance.



Her, V.K. (2005). Hmong mortuary practices: Self, place and meaning in urban America, PhD
Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
In this dissertation, the author maps out events in
a typical traditional Hmong funeral, illustrating the myriad ways in which Hmong Americans have had to
negotiate meaning and change. The author argues that the Hmong funeral is a communal occasion where
people come together to fulfill their obligations to the deceased and to partake in the re-enactment of their
tradition. In the process, participants experience first hand what it means to be Hmong and how they may have
become a different kind of Hmong, a transformed but recognizable version in urban America of the type of
individual and community remembered from Laos. Participation, the act subjecting oneself to the array of ritual
activities of a funeral, including its sight, sound and emotions, can have powerful influences on the memory of
the body. It can induce nostalgia, evoke consensus, and create continuity out of fragmented memories. As
people sense together, they bond together. They become culturally and historically linked, joined by a common
vocabulary of belonging.

Lee, M.N.M. (2005). The dream of the Hmong kingdom: Resistance, collaboration, and legitimacy
under French colonialism (1893--1955). PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Weaving together oral and archival sources collected from three continents, this thesis examines Hmong
political history in colonial Indochina and explains the impetus for their resistance against and
collaboration with the French from 1893 to 1955. Whether fighting or working with the French, the author
argues that the Hmong sought an immediate autonomy while yearning for ultimate sovereignty. Amidst this
incessant political maneuvering, there emerged two kinds of Hmong leaders; the secular political broker,
legitimated by both the colonial and indigenous authorities, and the messianic or prophetic leader who
proclaimed the mandate of Heaven to become the Hmong king incarnate. As long as the political broker
could negotiate autonomy, the Hmong accepted him as legitimate. When this leader became an
instrument of colonial oppression, however, the Hmong turned to competitors. Under certain conditions of
extreme duress, the Hmong followed a prophetic leader who promised an independent kingdom. Since
the political broker faced strong competition from other clan leaders and the prophet who always lies
dormant, the Hmong broker sought the support of powerful, external patrons to become a paramount
leader. His efforts invariably resulted in collaboration with authorities, indigenous or colonial, who
mobilized the Hmong for highland labor, both military and civil. Negotiating the boundaries between the
Hmong desire for autonomy and his patron's demand for services, the Hmong political broker necessarily
played an extractive role. When he failed to balance Hmong aspirations and the requisites of his patron,
his followers turned to competing leaders or he faced displacement by his patron. Consequently, Hmong
leaders rose and fell with marked frequency, precluding the development of a more enduring leadership
system in colonial Hmong society.

Tomforde, M. (2006). The Hmong Mountains: Cultural Spatiality of the Hmong in Northern
Thailand. Hamburg: Lit Verlag.
An ethnographic study of Hmong “Cultural Spatiality” in Northern
Thailand. The author argues that the Hmong in Northern Thailand are anchored via processes of place
making in local settlements, in a diaspora spread over 5 continents and in an “Otherworld” of supernatural
agents. The author suggests that the concept of the “Hmong Mountains” signifies the “place” the Hmong
people have constituted to maintain their socio-cultural distinctiveness in spite of statelessness. She
writes that the “Hmong Mountains” represent a mental model of the Hmong lifeworld which has evolved
during the course of a long history of migration, dispersal, and settlement in Thailand. The Hmong Resource
Center Library thanks Maren Tomforde for donating this important new work to our collections.

Academic Journal Articles/Other

Gerdner, L.A, Xiong, S.V., and D. Cha. (2006). “Chronic Confusion and Memory Impairment in
Hmong Elders.” Journal of Gerontological Nursing 32(3): 23-30.
The purpose of this article is to
discuss the traditional beliefs and treatment of tem toob (memory impairment) within the Hmong
culture. This includes a discussion of the authors’ encounters with Hmong herbalists in open-air
markets during a journey in Laos and Thailand. A story cloth is then featured to discuss a shamanic
healing ceremony for an elderly woman with tem toob. Nursing implications are discussed. The Hmong
Resource Center Library thanks the authors for donating this item to our collections.

Burt, S.M. (2005). “How to Get Rid of Unwanted Suitors: Advice from Hmong-American
Women of Two Generations.” Journal of Politeness Research 1:219-236.
This paper analyzes
the recommendations made by Hmong immigrant women and Hmong-American women for responses to a face-
threatening scenario, in which a woman is invited to play a courting game with a man in which she has no
interest. While the older women recommend direct statements and unmitigated directives to discourage the
suitor, the younger women recommend excuses and attempts to postpone. Thus the younger women appear to
recommend more polite verbal strategies than the older women do. The author argues that the differential
responses by age group seem to be related to the country and time in which they came of age and differences
in power relationships between genders in these contexts. The Hmong Resource Center Library thanks the
author for donating this item to our collections.


A unique new Hmong Studies resource is now available by visiting the above link. The comprehensive and one-
Online Annotated Bibliography of Hmong Studies Works contains full reference information and
descriptive summaries of more than 600 Hmong-Studies works published since 1996. Works are organized into
topical subcategories including Dictionaries, Bibliographies and Reference Works; Hmong History and
Contemporary Affairs in China, Hmong History and Contemporary Affairs in Southeast Asia; Hmong Culture;
The War in Laos and Refugee Resettlement Issues; Hmong Families, Parenting and Gender Roles; Settlement
Patterns and Socioeconomic Incorporation; Hmong Cultural Maintenance and Adaptation; Race Relations, The
Law, and Political Incorporation; Literacy and Educational Adaptation; Physical and Mental Health; Personal
Narratives of Hmong Americans; Juvenile Literature and Curriculum Materials for Teachers; Fiction; Videos and
Internet Resources.


This well attended event included presentations of recent research in Hmong Studies from
the recently printed Volume 6 of the Hmong Studies Journal, the only peer-reviewed
academic journal devoted to Hmong Studies (

Session Presenters included:

Robin Vue-Benson (Co-Founder, Hmong Studies Journal) and Dr. Mark E. Pfeifer (Editor of Hmong
Studies Journal and Director, Hmong Resource Center Library of the Hmong Cultural Center),
“Overview of the Hmong Studies Journal and its Contribution to Scholarship related to Hmong.”

Dr. Dia Cha (Saint Cloud State University), "Hmong and Lao Refugee Women: Reflections of a
Hmong-American Woman Anthropologist."

Dr. Robert Entenmann (St. Olaf College), "The Myth of Sonom, the Hmong King."

Dr. Daniel Detzner (University of Minnesota), “Immigrant Family Strengths: A
Comparison of Hmong and Somali Families.”

Dr. Zha Blong Xiong (University of Minnesota), “Linking Parent-Adolescent
Relationships to Adolescent Problem Behavior in Hmong Families."

The event was co-sponsored by the
Asian American Studies Program and the Institute for Advanced
Study of the University of Minnesota and the Hmong Cultural Center.


The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center has published the physical hard copy
edition of volume 6 of the Hmong Studies Journal. An internet-based journal, The Hmong Studies
Journal is the only peer-reviewed academic publication devoted to the scholarly discussion of
Hmong history, Hmong culture, Hmong people, and other facets of the Hmong experience in the U.
S., Asia and around the world. The Hmong Studies Journal has published 8 online issues in 6
volumes with a total of 43 scholarly articles since 1996.


Recent Works in Hmong Studies: Annotated Bibliography by Mark E. Pfeifer, Hmong Resource
Center Library, Hmong Cultural Center, Saint Paul.

Who is Hmong? Questions and Evidence from the U.S. Census by Wayne Carroll and Victoria
Udalova, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire.

Hmong and Lao Refugee Women: Reflections of a Hmong-American Woman Anthropologist by Dia
Cha, Saint Cloud State University.

Hmong Resettlement in French Guiana by Patrick F. Clarkin, University of Massachusetts, Boston.

The Myth of Sonom, the Hmong King; by Robert Entenmann, Saint Olaf College

Hmong Cosmology: Proposed Model, Preliminary Insights by Vincent K. Her, University of Wisconsin-

The Shaping of Traditions: Agriculture and Hmong Society by Gary Yia Lee

What is the actual number of the (H)mong in the World by Jacques Lemoine

Hmong Refugees Death Fugue by Sheng-mei Ma, Michigan State University

Continuing the promise: Recruiting and preparing Hmong-American educators for Central
Wisconsin by Leslie McClain-Ruelle, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point and Kao Xiong,
University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Southeast Asian Fathers Experiences with Adolescents: Challenges and Change by Zha Blong Xiong
and Daniel F. Detzner, University of Minnesota.

Research Notes from the Field: Tracing the Path of the Ancestors A Visit to the Hmong in China by
Kou Yang, California State University, Stanislaus.

Also available for order are four additional unique scholarly publications – An Annotated
Bibliography of Hmong-Related Works 1996-2004, Hmong 2000 Census Publication in collaboration
with Hmong National Development and several scholars of Hmong-American Studies and two
previous issues of the Hmong Studies Journal.

Click this link for further information about these publications as well as ordering info

Click this link to view the electronic edition of the Hmong Studies Journal Volume 6

DEADLINE  MAY 31, 2006

The Hmong Studies Journal invites article submissions for its 2006 issue (Volume 7).

The Hmong Studies Journal is a unique and established peer-reviewed Internet-based
academic publication devoted to the scholarly discussion of Hmong history, Hmong
culture, Hmong people, and other facets of the Hmong experience in the U.S., Asia and
around the world. The Hmong Studies Journal has published 8 online issues since

Hmong Studies-related scholarly articles from all disciplinary backgrounds and
perspectives are welcome. Works considered for submission must consist of original
research and not have been previously published elsewhere. Book reviews are
welcome but works consisting primarily of non-original literature reviews of other works
generally are not accepted. Neither are works that consist primarily of political-oriented
commentary. Articles for submission review should be sent on diskette or by e-mail
attachment to Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD Director, Hmong Resource Center, Hmong Cultural
Center, 995 University Avenue, Suite 214, Saint Paul, MN 55104, e-mail: or to Anne Frank, Librarian, Southeast Asian Archive,
University of California, Irvine, The UCI Libraries, P.O. Box 19557, Irvine, CA
92623-9557, e-mail:

Please note: As a peer-reviewed journal, the Hmong Studies Journal reserves the right
to suggest and request revisions to any submitted article. The editors and editorial
board of the Hmong Studies Journal will review all articles and subsequent drafts for
possible submission and will decide whether articles are to be accepted or declined.

Manuscripts should be submitted in the "Uniform scholarly article format" and organized, as follows:

1.  Abstract
2.  Introduction/Background
3.  Methods [and Material]
4.  Results
5.  Discussion
6.  References

To view all of the articles in the past issues of the Hmong Studies Journal visit:


The Hmong Studies Journal has recently been approached and reached agreement to have all of its content
distributed in digital format to hundreds of academic libraries around the world through ProQuest's Ethnic
NewsWatch. Other peer-reviewed scholarly journals related to Ethnic Studies distributed by Ethnic NewsWatch
include: Research in African Literatures, American Indian Quarterly, Pacific Historical Review, The Journal of
Blacks in Higher Education, Jewish Social Studies, Isreal Studies, History and Memory, Ethnic Studies Review,
Diverse Issues in Higher Education, Cultural Survival Quarterly, Canadian Ethnic Studies, Race, Gender, and
Class, and The Social Studies.

Hmong Cultural Center's 2005 Annual Report is now available for viewing at this link. Hmong
Cultural Center is home to the Hmong Resource Center Library as well as adult basic education,
cultural education and multicultural education programs. The annual report includes listings of
Hmong Resource Center library acquisitions in 2005.
Older HCC Annual Reports back to 1999 may be
viewed at this link.


The Hmong Resource Center is partnering with Craig Rice to provide up-to-date content related to
community educational events, Hmong resources and Hmong Studies for the WWW Hmong
Homepage. Craig Rice co-founded the WWW Hmong Homepage in early 1994. The website was one
of the first to provide substantive educational resources related to Hmong-Americans and Hmong
around the world. The WWW Hmong Homepage is still one of the most heavily visited and linked
educational websites related to the Hmong. To view the WWW Hmong Homepage and learn about
upcoming educational events visit:


A moderated message board intended as a forum for information about existing and new
research resources in Hmong Studies is available at: