ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION: The Hmong Studies Resource Newsletter has since 2001 provided a very unique
and consistent source of up-to-date information about new works in Hmong Studies and
Hmong-related research resources. To access back issues of this online publication dating back to
2001 visit:

Comprehensive and frequently updated online subject bibliographies of Hmong Studies works are available at:

Hmong Studies Newsletter Editor: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD, Texas A and M University


The Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center ( is the online home of the Hmong
Studies Journal academic journal. The unique scholarly site also contains extensive bibliographies in Hmong
Studies as well as census data and an online research paper library.

Many of the Hmong Studies articles, books and dissertations listed in this newsletter and on the website may be
found at the Hmong Resource Center Library at the Hmong Cultural Center in Saint Paul, perhaps the largest
depository of Hmong Studies academic articles and dissertations in the United States. The Hmong Resource
Center Library of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 9 – Noon. Other
times are available by appointment. The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s
offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite 214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. Librarian: Ray Murray. E-Mail:

Link to Hmong Resource Center Library Online Catalog:

Walk-ins are welcome and there are many displays to look at that teach about the Hmong people, their history,
their culture and their experience in the U.S. over the past 25 years. Larger group tours and educational
sessions may be arranged in advance.



Cooney, Bridget M. (2005). International policies, refugee spatialities, and the Hmong of Southeast
Asia. M.A. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach.
From the abstract: “this study is about the
absence and presence, accuracy and inaccuracy of refugee data on the Hmong and the struggle to
understand the relationship between international refugee policy and the spatial distribution of Hmong people
at the global scale. There is a rather scattered picture of global Hmong refugee distributions as global policies
have transplanted them from Southeast Asia to the other parts of the world. This thesis disentangles the
complex representations that are part of the global movement of Hmong refugees. This is done through an
analysis of international policies that have had some impact on those distribution patterns, as well as through
an analysis of data sources available on Hmong refugees."

Kwon, Sylvia E. (2006). Recognition, identity construction, and second-generation Hmong American
students in an urban high school. PhD Dissertation, University of Michigan.
From the abstract: “Based
on an ethnographic study at an urban high school in southeastern Michigan, this dissertation examines how
second-generation Hmong American students sought to create meaningful and visible identities in response to
institutional and relational experiences. On a daily basis, these students encountered school-based practices
and interactions with teachers, administrators, and other students that frequently stigmatized them or rendered
them invisible. In response, these students constructed and asserted identities in search of recognition by
others in the school. The primary goals of this dissertation are: (1) to study how second-generation Hmong
American students constructed and asserted their individual and collective identities, (2) to examine how
policies and relationships at the school-level misconstrued and misrepresented them: and (3) to investigate
how the Hmong youth's identities reflected and emphasized their need for equal acknowledgement and
participation in the predominantly African American school.”

Poss, Nicholas. (2005). The Communication of Verbal Content on the Hmong Raj: An Ethnographic
Analysis of Performance Practice. Masters Thesis, The Ohio State University, Columbus.
From the
abstract: “First generation members of the diasporic Hmong-American community continue the practice of
communicating verbal content on a variety of instruments, including raj, a family of aerophones. Based on field
research with White Hmong (Hmoob Dawb) residents of Wisconsin and Minnesota, this thesis provides an in-
depth ethnographic account of raj performance in America.” This thesis may be viewed online at:

Thao, Debbie Dao. (2006). Gender and acculturation as predictors of attitudes toward seeking
professional psychological help among the Hmong community. Psy.D. Dissertation, Alliant
International University, Fresno.
The following summary of this dissertation is provided from the abstract:
“This study investigated the effects of the level of acculturation and gender on the attitudes toward seeking
professional psychological help among the Hmong community. In addition, it assessed the relationship between
the attitudes toward seeking help and prior experience in mental health counseling. Sixty-one adult male and
72 adult female Hmong individuals participated in this study. The results indicated that (a) a high level of
acculturation led to more positive attitudes toward seeking professional help, (b) women did not hold more
positive attitudes toward seeking professional help than did men, (c) highly acculturated women held more
positive attitudes toward seeking professional help than did less acculturated women, and (d) age was the
strongest predictor of attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. An interesting finding was that
35.8% of the participants indicated that they would seek a counselor in time of crisis, although only 12.4%
reported actually having done so.”

Academic Journal Articles/Other

Alseben, Bev (2006). “Preliterate English Learners: Refugee Camp to the U.S. Classroom.” California
English, Summer 2006: 6-8.
A short article from a publication of the California Teachers of English. The work
describes the Minnesota-based author’s experiences teaching English to recently arrived teen and young adult
Hmong refugees from Wat Tham Krabok in Thailand.

Krashen, Stephen. (2005). “The Hard Work Hypothesis: Is Doing Your Homework Enough to
Overcome the Effects of Poverty?” Multicultural Education 12 (4): 16-19.
This short paper discusses
whether the so-called “Hard Work Hypothesis” fits the educational trajectories of different Southeast Asian
American groups using data sets available in older, previously published work. The paper may be accessed
online at:

Lee, Stacey J. (2006). “Additional complexities: social class, ethnicity, generation, and gender in
Asian American student experiences.” Race Ethnicity and Education 9(1): 17–28.
From the article
abstract: “Despite the largely monolithic descriptions of Asian American students as high achieving model
minorities, Asian Americans are a diverse group and their experiences are varied and complex. This article
explores the ways that social class, ethnicity, generation, and gender shape the educational opportunities,
experiences and achievement of Asian American students. It demonstrates that in order to better serve the
unique needs of Asian American students we must examine the ways various identities, and the intersections of
identities, inform the experiences of Asian Americans.”

Pinzon-Perez, Helda, Moua, Neng and Miguel A. Perez. (2005). “Understanding Satisfaction with
Shamanic Practices among the Hmong in Rural California.” The International Electronic Journal of
Health Education, 8:18-23.
From the abstract: “the purpose of this study was to determine the difference in
the levels of satisfaction among Hmong clients who use shamans and their services in Fresno County with
regard to factors associated with animal sacrifice, gender of the shaman and the practices inside or outside of
the client’s home. Data were collected from 115 study participants in a rural California county. Findings from
this study suggest that clients who had shamans conduct the rituals at their own homes and those who used
live animals were significantly more satisfied than those had to travel to meet the shaman and those whose
shamans’ use dead animals. There were no significant differences in clients’ satisfaction by the gender of the
shaman.” This article may be viewed at the following link:

Pinzon-Perez, Helen. (2006). “Health Issues for the Hmong Population in the U.S.: Implications for
Health Educators.”  International Electronic Journal of Health Education 9:122-133.
This article
provides general information for health practitioners about working with Hmong-origin clients. From the
abstract: “Health issues such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B carrier status, asymptomatic splenomegaly, sudden
unexpected nocturnal death syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, injuries related to agricultural
occupation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, lower immunization rates, and cancer, pose major challenges for
health education practitioners. Genetics, problems with access to health services, and diet-related issues
appear to be important contributors for morbidity and mortality in this population. Although the Hmong born
outside the US account for less than 0.5% of the foreign population in the US, they are an important group from
a health education perspective.” This article may be accessed at the following link:

Supple, Andrew J. and Stephen A. Small. (2006). “The Influence of Parental Support, Knowledge, and
Authoritative Parenting on Hmong and European American Adolescent Development.”  Journal of
Family Issues 27(9): 1214-1232.
From the abstract: "This study used a community-wide survey of adolescents
to compare adolescent perceptions of parental support, knowledge, and authoritative decision making in
samples of Hmong and European Americans. Additional analyses considered variation in parental influence on
adolescent outcomes across these groups. The results suggested that Hmong American youth perceived less
parental support and knowledge and were less likely to report authoritative decision making with parents.
Parental support and knowledge were associated with higher self-esteem and grade point average (GPA) and
lowered risky health behaviors in both samples. Results also suggested that authoritative decision making by
mothers was a more important predictor of adolescent GPA and risky behaviors for the European American

Yang, Richard C., Mills, Paul K. and Jennifer L Dodge. (2006). "Cancer Screening, Reproductive
History, Socioeconomic Status, and Anticipated Cancer-related Behavior among Hmong Adults."
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 7: 79-85.
From the article abstract: “In the United States,
breast, cervical, colorectal and prostate cancer screening rates are low or non-existent in the Hmong
population compared to non-Hispanic Whites. No Hmong adults report ever participating in prostate (male only)
and colorectal cancer screening. US-born Hmong women, those living in the US ≥20 years, and those ≤39
years old are more likely to be screened for breast and cervical cancer than other women. The Hmong, in
general, are a young population (median age = 34 years) with low socioeconomic status. As a function of these
characteristics, 52% of Hmong women reported having their first child at 15-19 years old and continued to bear
children until 40-54 years old. The combination of young age at first pregnancy and multiparity probably
protects Hmong women from breast cancer but elevates cervical cancer risk.”

Zhou, Min and Yang Sao Xiong. (2005). “The multifaceted American experiences of the children of
Asian immigrants: Lessons for segmented assimilation.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 28(6): 1119-1152.
From the authors’ abstract: "This article aims to problematize the model minority image of Asian Americans. We
argue that America’s racial and class systems of stratification have shaped and, to an important extent,
determined second-generation Asian Americans’ multifaceted experiences and life chances. Consistent with the
existing research, we find that assimilation outcomes among children of Asian immigrants are diverse but not
random, depending on the interplay between individual, family, community, and societal factors, which are
linked to unique contexts of exit and reception. We also find that, even though most children of Asian
immigrants hold firm to the ideology of assimilation and aspire to achieving parity with the society’s dominant
group, they are still keenly aware of their inferior racial status and are likely to internalize the disadvantages
associated with it.” In the article, the authors use 2000 census data to compare Hmong Americans with other
Asian American ethnic groups residing in the San Diego, CA area on a variety of social and economic


A unique new Hmong Studies resource is now available by visiting the above link. The comprehensive and one-
Online Annotated Bibliography of Hmong Studies Works contains full reference information and
descriptive summaries of more than 600 Hmong-Studies works published since 1996. Works are organized into
topical subcategories including Dictionaries, Bibliographies and Reference Works; Hmong History and
Contemporary Affairs in China, Hmong History and Contemporary Affairs in Southeast Asia; Hmong Culture;
The War in Laos and Refugee Resettlement Issues; Hmong Families, Parenting and Gender Roles; Settlement
Patterns and Socioeconomic Incorporation; Hmong Cultural Maintenance and Adaptation; Race Relations, The
Law, and Political Incorporation; Literacy and Educational Adaptation; Physical and Mental Health; Personal
Narratives of Hmong Americans; Juvenile Literature and Curriculum Materials for Teachers; Fiction; Videos and
Internet Resources.


The Hmong Resource Center of the Hmong Cultural Center has published the physical hard copy
edition of volume 6 of the Hmong Studies Journal. An internet-based journal, The Hmong Studies
Journal is the only peer-reviewed academic publication devoted to the scholarly discussion of
Hmong history, Hmong culture, Hmong people, and other facets of the Hmong experience in the U.
S., Asia and around the world. The Hmong Studies Journal has published 8 online issues in 6
volumes with a total of 43 scholarly articles since 1996.


Recent Works in Hmong Studies: Annotated Bibliography by Mark E. Pfeifer, Hmong Resource
Center Library, Hmong Cultural Center, Saint Paul.

Who is Hmong? Questions and Evidence from the U.S. Census by Wayne Carroll and Victoria
Udalova, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire.

Hmong and Lao Refugee Women: Reflections of a Hmong-American Woman Anthropologist by Dia
Cha, Saint Cloud State University.

Hmong Resettlement in French Guiana by Patrick F. Clarkin, University of Massachusetts, Boston.

The Myth of Sonom, the Hmong King; by Robert Entenmann, Saint Olaf College

Hmong Cosmology: Proposed Model, Preliminary Insights by Vincent K. Her, University of Wisconsin-

The Shaping of Traditions: Agriculture and Hmong Society by Gary Yia Lee

What is the actual number of the (H)mong in the World by Jacques Lemoine

Hmong Refugees Death Fugue by Sheng-mei Ma, Michigan State University

Continuing the promise: Recruiting and preparing Hmong-American educators for Central
Wisconsin by Leslie McClain-Ruelle, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point and Kao Xiong,
University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Southeast Asian Fathers Experiences with Adolescents: Challenges and Change by Zha Blong Xiong
and Daniel F. Detzner, University of Minnesota.

Research Notes from the Field: Tracing the Path of the Ancestors A Visit to the Hmong in China by
Kou Yang, California State University, Stanislaus.

Also available for order are four additional unique scholarly publications – An Annotated
Bibliography of Hmong-Related Works 1996-2004, Hmong 2000 Census Publication in collaboration
with Hmong National Development and several scholars of Hmong-American Studies and two
previous issues of the Hmong Studies Journal.

Click this link for further information about these publications as well as ordering info

Click this link to view the electronic edition of the Hmong Studies Journal Volume 6


The Hmong Studies Journal has recently been approached and reached agreement to have all of its content
distributed in digital format to hundreds of academic libraries around the world through ProQuest's Ethnic
NewsWatch. Other peer-reviewed scholarly journals related to Ethnic Studies distributed by Ethnic NewsWatch
include: Research in African Literatures, American Indian Quarterly, Pacific Historical Review, The Journal of
Blacks in Higher Education, Jewish Social Studies, Isreal Studies, History and Memory, Ethnic Studies Review,
Diverse Issues in Higher Education, Cultural Survival Quarterly, Canadian Ethnic Studies, Race, Gender, and
Class, and The Social Studies.


The Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center is partnering with Craig Rice to provide up-to-date content
related to community educational events, Hmong resources and Hmong Studies for the WWW Hmong
Homepage. Craig Rice co-founded the WWW Hmong Homepage in early 1994. The website was one of the first
to provide substantive educational resources related to Hmong-Americans and Hmong around the world. The
WWW Hmong Homepage is still one of the most heavily visited and linked educational websites related to the
Hmong. The latest update includes a link to a new Hmong Cookbook website. To view the WWW Hmong
Homepage and learn about upcoming educational events visit:

(Saint Paul)

Hmong Cultural Center Annual Fundraising Banquet,

Saturday, October 28, 2006, 3-6 PM

At the FoodSmart Banquet Room, 554 University Avenue West, St. Paul  (Shopping
Center at University and Dale)

(Tickets are $25 per person)

Delicious Hmong/Lao/Thai food will be served

Keynote Speaker: Senator Mee Moua

Tickets may also be reserved by calling 651-917-9937 for pickup on the evening of
the event at FoodSmart.  Tickets will also be available at the door the day of the
event.  For more information call 651-917-9937 or email:

All proceeds will go to support Hmong Cultural Center's Youth Programs - the Qeej
Program, the Dance Program and the Hmong Men's Circle.

Banquet website with registration form, flyer, and donation link.

HMONG RESOURCE FAIR 2006 (OCTOBER 21, 2006)(Saint Paul)

The 5th Annual Hmong Resource Fair will be held October 21, 2006 at Arlington High School in Saint
Paul, MN.
Visit this link to view the new website for the Hmong Resource Fair.
Photos and the program from last year's Hmong Resource Fair may be viewed here.


A moderated message board intended as a forum for information about existing and new
research resources in Hmong Studies is available at: