HMONG STUDIES NEWSLETTER
Spring 2007 (March-June 2007)
ONLINE PUBLICATION OF THE HMONG STUDIES INTERNET RESOURCE
ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION: The Hmong Studies Resource Newsletter has since 2001 provided a very unique
and consistent source of up-to-date information about new works in Hmong Studies and
Hmong-related research resources. To access back issues of this online publication dating back to
2001 visit: http://www.hmongstudies.org/HmongStudiesNewslettersindex.html
Hmong Studies Newsletter Editor: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD, Texas A and M University
ABOUT THE HMONG STUDIES INTERNET RESOURCE CENTER:
The Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center (www.hmongstudies.org) is the online home of the Hmong
Studies Journal academic journal. The unique scholarly site also contains extensive bibliographies in Hmong
Studies as well as census data and an online research paper library.
Many of the Hmong Studies articles, books and dissertations listed in this newsletter and on the website may be
found at the Hmong Resource Center Library at the Hmong Cultural Center in Saint Paul, perhaps the largest
depository of Hmong Studies academic articles and dissertations in the United States. The Hmong Resource
Center Library of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 9 – 5. Other
times are available by appointment. The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s
offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite 214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. Librarians: Ray Murray and
Xai Lor. E-Mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Link to Hmong Resource Center Library Online Catalog:
Walk-ins are welcome and there are many displays to look at that teach about the Hmong people, their history,
their culture and their experience in the U.S. over the past 25 years. Larger group tours and educational
sessions may be arranged in advance.
NEW WORKS IN HMONG STUDIES:
Heather Gibson. (2007). Embroidered History and Familiar Patterns: Textiles as Expressions of
Hmong and Mennonite Lives, MA Thesis, University of Delaware. A graduate thesis that examines
commonalities in the Hmong development of storycloths and Mennonite production of quilts in Southeastern
Nan Kari and Nan Skelton, Editors (2007).Voices of Hope: the Story of the Jane Addams School for
Democracy. Dayton, OH: Kettering Foundation Press. This recently published work tells of the history and
achievements of the Jane Addams School for Democracy based in Saint Paul, Minnesota. The Jane Addams
School links college students and immigrant families as it provides Citizenship and Adult Basic Education
classes. The volume features articles by the school’s staff, volunteers and former students. Four articles in the
work were written by Hmong-Americans: “The Journey” by See Vang, “Return to Ban Vanai” by Pakou Hang,
“Children Teach Us” by See Moua, and “Building a Political Consciousness” by Pakou Hang. The Hmong
Studies Research Newsletter thanks the Kettering Foundation for providing a review copy of this new volume.
More information about this new publication is available at the following link:
Tony Tubtooj Moua. (2007). Change and Choice: Hmongs’ Identification with a Homeland. PsyD
Dissertation, Alliant International University, Fresno. This study assesses whether Hmong of different
generations believe the Hmong have a “homeland.” The researcher surveyed 100 Hmong residing in California.
The author observed that 89% of his sample believed their homeland was the United States, 7% named Laos,
2% chose Thailand, 1% listed China, and 1% marked on the survey that the Hmong had no homeland.
Younger generations were more likely to mark the United States as their homeland.
Chia Youyee Vang. (2006). Reconstructing Community in Diaspora: Narratives of Hmong American
Refugee Resistance and Human Agency. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. The author of this
graduate study examines government policies, resettlement agency programs, the cultural politics of new year
events, ethnic organization development, ethnic political activity and various aspects of identity formation with
the purpose of showing how Hmong-Americans have engaged in collective forms of agency since arriving in the
U.S. beginning in the mid-1970s. The author highlights the diverse identities and multiple sources of agency
exhibited among Hmong-Americans in opposition to other works of scholarship which often emphasized
homogeneity among Hmong refugees and Hmong-Americans.
Shoua Yang. (2006). Hmong Social and Political Capital: The Formation and Maintenance of Hmong-
American Organizations. PhD Dissertation, Northern Illinois University. This graduate research study
examines the formation and maintenance of 10 Hmong-American organizations located in Minnesota and other
states. The author notes that social and cultural disturbances affecting Hmong communities, professional
solidarity, and Hmong social capital were major contributing factors in the formation of the organizations studied.
Academic Journal Articles/Other
Shelley R. Adler. (2006). “Refugee Stress and Folk Belief: Hmong Sudden Deaths.” In Elizabeth
Dixon Whitaker, Ed. Health and Healing in Comparative Perspective. Upper Saddle River, N.J.:
Pearson Prentice Hall. A book chapter that provides a reprint of a 1995 journal article that describes SUNDS,
Sudden Unexpected Nocturnal Death Syndrome which was identified as the cause of death among more than
100 Southeast Asian refugees in the United States from the late 1970s through the mid-1990s.
Steven S. Fu, Diana Burgess, Michelle van Ryn, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Jody Solomon and Anne M.
Joseph. (2007). “Views on Smoking Cessation Methods in Ethnic Minority Communities: A
Qualitative Investigation.” Preventive Medicine 44: 235-240. The authors of this study conducted focus
groups in Minneapolis-St. Paul among current and former smokers from four backgrounds: African American,
Native American, Hmong and Vietnamese. The participants in the study reported scant experience with
counseling and the way they viewed doctors varied. Unlike most of the African American and Native American
respondents, Hmong and Vietnamese participants viewed doctors positively but did not perceive them as an
important resource to help with quitting. The participants from all four backgrounds had low knowledge or
understanding of the benefits of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.
Linda A. Gerdner, Dia Cha, Deu Yang, and Toni Tripp-Reimer. (2007). “The Circle of Life: End-of-Life
Care and Death Rituals for Hmong-American Elders.” Journal of Gerontological Nursing 33(5): 20-29.
This article provides readers with an overview of traditional Hmong spiritual beliefs pertaining to life and death
with an emphasis upon the implications of these beliefs for end-of-life and post-mortem care of Hmong-
Americans. The Hmong Studies Research Newsletter thanks Dr. Linda A. Gerdner for providing copies of this
article to the newletter editor and to the Hmong Cultural Center’s Resource Library.
Yuko Homma and Elizabeth Saewyc. (2007). “The Emotional Well-Being of Asian-American Sexual
Minority Youth in School.” Journal of LGBT Health Research 3(1): 67-78. This article reports on a
research study that was conducted with 9 primarily Hmong sexual minority youth residing in the U.S. Midwest.
The study’s results indicated that the sexual minority youth who had perceptions of lower levels of family caring
and a negative school climate reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher amounts of emotional distress.
The authors recommend that culturally sensitive support be provided to Asian-American sexual minority youth.
Nerida Jarkey. (2006). “Complement Clause Types and Complementation Strategy in White Hmong.”
In Robert M.W. Dixon and A.I.U. Aikhenval’d, Eds. Complementation: A Cross-Linguistic Typology.
New York: Oxford University Press. This article is intended primarily for an audience of students and
scholars who study Linguistics. The article discusses in some detail complement clause types and the
complementation strategy observed in the structure and usage of White Hmong.
Stacey J. Lee. (2007). “The ‘good’ news and the bad ‘news’: the “Americanization of Hmong girls.” In
Bonnie J. Ross Leadbeater and Niobe Way, Eds. Urban Girls Revisited: Building Strengths. New
York: New York University Press, 202-217. This book chapter article assesses how Hmong American
female youth negotiate new gender norms and roles in the U.S. The author primarily focuses on three realms of
gender roles and patterns – educational aspirations; marriage, sexuality, and family relationships; and the girls’
ideals pertaining to beauty.
Jamie Stang, Angela Kong, Mary Story, Marla E. Eisenberg and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer. (2007).
“Food and Weight-Related Patterns and Behaviors of Hmong Adolescents.” Journal of the American
Dietetic Association 107(6): 936-941. This study assessed food and weight-related behaviors among 649
Hmong and 2,260 White youth who participated in Project EAT (Eating among Teens). According to the
authors, Hmong teens reported a higher rate of participation in family meals and greater involvement in food
purchasing and preparation. Fast-food consumption did not differ greatly among Hmong and White teens.
Hmong teens reported that they ate breakfast less frequently. A higher prevalence of being overweight was
reported among Hmong compared to White male youth while the rates among females were similar. Hmong
students reported higher levels of weight concern, body dissatisfaction, dieting, unhealthful weight control
behaviors, less physical activity and more inactivity than White students. The authors conclude that Hmong
youth seem to be at a higher risk for obesity, feelings of body dissatisfaction as well as unhealthy weight control
behaviors in comparison to White youth. Culturally tailored interventions are recommended for Hmong youth.
Sandra C. van Calcar, Linda A. Gleason, Heidi Lindh, Gary Hoffman, William Rhead, Gerard Vockley,
Jon A. Wolff and Maureen S. Durkin. (2007).“2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in
Hmong infants identified by expanded newborn screen.” Wisconsin Medical Journal 106(1): 12-15.
An article that discusses a high prevalence of 2-Methylbutryl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency observed among
Hmong newborn infants in Wisconsin.
NEW COMPREHENSIVE HMONG STUDIES ANNOTATED RESEARCH
BIBLIOGRAPHY TO BE PUBLISHED BY SCARECROW PRESS/ROWMAN
In the Fall of 2007, a comprehensive bibliography authored by Mark Pfeifer and consisting of more than 600
annotations of Hmong Studies-related scholarly research works published between 1996-2006 will be published
by The Scarecrow Press, a subsidiary of Rowman Littlefield specializing in academic bibliographies and
reference works. This new volume will represent the first Hmong Studies annotated research bibliography
published since the mid-1990s. To learn more about this soon to be available work visit the following webpage:
HMONG CULTURAL CENTER’S RESOURCE CENTER LIBRARY UPDATES
ONLINE CATALOG HOLDINGS LISTS:
Hmong Cultural Center in Saint Paul has updated the lists of holdings in its Resource Center library on its
website at www.hmongcenter.org. The library section of the center’s website may be reached at:
Hmong Cultural Center’s library collection includes the following:
- About 475 Hmong-related books and periodicals. A complete and updated list is here: http://hmongstudies.
- About 200 Hmong-related dissertations and theses. A complete and updated list is here:
- About 650 Hmong-related academic journal articles from peer-reviewed journals. A complete and updated list
of the journal articles in the collection is here:
More comprehensive in its focus than any university or public library in the Twin Cities area, the Hmong Cultural
Center Resource Library is the largest collection of Hmong-related academic research publications in
Minnesota and most likely the United States. The most distinctive and specialized portions of the library are the
dissertations/theses and peer-reviewed journal article collections.
For information about using this unique, special collections library call Xai Lor or Ray Murray at 651-917-9937.
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU RELEASES DETAILED HMONG CENSUS DATA FROM
2005 AMERICAN COMMUNITY SURVEY:
In late 2006, the U.S. Census released state Hmong population counts and a detailed community profile
(including socioeconomic, education, and demographic variables) for the Hmong population across the U.S.
from the 2005 American Community Survey. This is the most detailed Hmong-American data that has been
available since the release of the 2000 census.
More info about these datasets and links to 2005 ACS Hmong data have been posted at the following link:
Information about Southeast Asian American data (Vietnamese, Cambodian, Lao) is posted here:
Brief articles about the newly available census data have also recently been published in the Asian American
Press newspaper. These articles may be viewed at the following links:
HMONG CULTURAL CENTER’S CITIZENSHIP INSTRUCTION PROGRAM
FEATURED IN MINNEAPOLIS STAR TRIBUNE AND SAINT PAUL PIONEER PRESS
On May 9, 2007, Hmong Cultural Center’s population Citizenship classes were featured in the Minneapolis Star-
Tribune and Saint Paul Pioneer Press newspapers as they participated in the pilot-testing of a new U.S.
Citizenship test by the U.S. Dept of Citizenship and Immigrant Services. Updated information about these
newspaper articles and the heavily utilized Citizenship and English as a Second Language program at Hmong
Cultural Center in Saint Paul may be viewed at the following link: http://www.hmongcenter.org/funworandcit.html
HMONG CULTURAL CENTER 2006 ANNUAL REPORT POSTED ONLINE:
For the 8th consecutive year, Saint Paul’s Hmong Cultural Center has posted its Annual Organizational Report
NEW HMONG FOLK ARTS VIDEOS ADDED TO LEARNABOUTHMONG WEBPAGE:
Hmong Cultural Center has added 9 new videos of Hmong folk arts performances to LearnaboutHmong.com, a
unique multicultural arts education website: the Learn about Hmong website uses online video clips and other
multimedia technologies to teach about the Hmong folk arts while also promoting a better understanding of the
Hmong people and their experience in Minnesota and the United States. The new video clips added to the
website in early 2007 include the following:
• Wangsue Lee playing a song on the traditional Hmong Two-String Violin instrument (Thaj Chij).
• Tougeu Leepalao orally reciting and performing 6 songs from the Hmong funeral ceremony on the Qeej
instrument (The Death Song, the Song to Resurrect the Horse, the Song to Give the Deceased Supper, the
Song to Give the Deceased Animals, the Song to Give the Deceased an Army, the Song to Send the Body to
• Tougeu Leepalao Orally Reciting the Hmong funeral ceremony Song to Give a Blessing to the
Deceased's Family Through the Sacrifice of a Pig
• Tougeu Leepalao Orally reciting the Hmong marriage ceremony song Bringing the Bride to the Groom’s
To view all of the new video Hmong folk arts performances visit the LearnaboutHmong video webpage
A special event was held at Hmong Cultural Center in Saint Paul on April 9, 2007 highlighting the Hmong folk
artists featured on the website.
LearnaboutHmong.org/com is a multimedia website intended to advance public knowledge about the Hmong
folk arts and promote multicultural education about the Hmong people. LearnaboutHmong.com has been made
possible from 2004-2007 by support from the National Endowment for the Arts, the COMPAS/McKnight
Foundation Community Art Program, the COMPAS/3M Award for Innovation in the Arts Program and the Asian
Pacific Endowment of the Saint Paul Foundation.
COMPREHENSIVE HMONG STUDIES RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHIES ARE
Doing research on a Hmong Studies research topic? More than 30 Comprehensive and frequently updated
online subject bibliographies of Hmong Studies works are available at the following link:
WWW HMONG HOMEPAGE UPDATE INCLUDES NEW PORTRAITS OF HMONG
The Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center is partnering with Craig Rice to provide up-to-date content
related to community educational events, Hmong resources and Hmong Studies for the WWW Hmong
Homepage. Craig Rice co-founded the WWW Hmong Homepage in early 1994. The website was one of the first
to provide substantive educational resources related to Hmong-Americans and Hmong around the world. The
WWW Hmong Homepage is still one of the most heavily visited and linked educational websites related to the
Hmong. The latest update includes a link to a new Portraits of Hmong Women website. To view the WWW
Hmong Homepage and learn about upcoming educational events visit: www.hmongnet.org
HMONG STUDIES MESSAGE BOARD:
A moderated message board intended as a forum for information about existing and new
research resources in Hmong Studies is available at: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/hmongstudies/