SUMMER 2009 (April-August 2009)


ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION: The Hmong Studies Newsletter has since 2001 provided a very unique and
consistent source of up-to-date information about new works in Hmong Studies and
Hmong-related research resources. To access back issues of this online publication dating back to
2001 visit:

Hmong Studies Newsletter Editor: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD


The Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center ( is the online home of the Hmong
Studies Journal academic journal. This unique scholarly site also contains extensive bibliographies in Hmong
Studies as well as census data and an online research paper library.

Many of the Hmong Studies articles, books and dissertations listed in this newsletter and on the website may be
found at the Hmong Resource Center Library at the Hmong Cultural Center in Saint Paul, perhaps the largest
depository of Hmong Studies academic articles and dissertations in the United States. The Hmong Resource
Center Library of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 9 – 5. Other
times are available by appointment. The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s
offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite 214 in Saint Paul.
Link to map: Phone: 651-917-9937. Librarians: Xai
Lor, Cher Vue and Ray Murray. E-Mail:

Link to Hmong Resource Center Library Online Catalog:



Tanya Christopherson (2009). Assessment of Risk Factors for Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
in Hmong Americans from Dunn County, Wisconsin. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.
purpose of this study was to identify if Hmong residents of Dunn County, Wisconsin have risk factors for
developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. The author found that the only major risk factor associated with type 2
diabetes found in this study was inadequate fiber intake. View this thesis online at this link:

Melanie Heu. (2008). Challenges of Volunteerism within a Cultural Community: Case Study of Young
Hmong Adults in Kitchener-Waterloo. M.S.W. Thesis, Wilfrid Laurier University (Canada).
graduate study examines volunteerism within the context of a cultural voluntary organization in Southern
Ontario. The author conducted a case study among young Hmong adult members of the organization. The
author pays particular attention to how intergenerational and cross-cultural challenges impacted the volunteer
experiences of the study participants.

Pao Lee. (2009). Racial Assimilation and Popular Culture: Hmong Youth (Sub)cultures and the
Persistance of the Color Line. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.
This graduate study focuses
on second generation Hmong immigrants’ adaptation to American life. Case studies of Hmong hip hop and
import racing are provided by the author to inform about the role of race in Hmong adaptation and
incorporation as described in theories of segmented assimilation. The author concludes that in a “seemingly
unconscious resistance response” to their racial experiences, Hmong males work to create identity by using
cultural “toolkits” which include Hmong Hip Hop and import racing.

Choua Mouavangsou. (2009). Traditional Hmong Marriage Ceremony Values and Practices: Influence
and Change as a Result of Immigration. PhD Dissertation, Alliant International University, Fresno.
This graduate research study consists of a qualitative study which investigates factors that have impacted
change to the traditional Hmong marriage ceremony among the 0.5 generation Hmong (individuals born in Laos
but raised and educated in the United States).

Pang Foua Yang Rhodes. (2008). Intimate Partner Violence among Hmong American Men and
Women. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.
This qualitative study investigates the experiences of
and explanations for intimate partner violence among a sample of 12 Hmong men and women.  

Academic Journal Articles/Other

Mary Jo Baisch, Pang C. Vang and Beth R. Peterman. (2008). “An Exploration of Hmong Women’s
Perspectives on Cancer.” Asian Nursing Research 2(2): 82-91.
This study explores the perspectives of
Hmong women on cancer. The authors conducted focus groups with Hmong women residing in Milwaukee,

Walter T. Boulden. (2009). “Gay Hmong: A Multifacted Clash of Cultures.” Journal of Gay and Lesbian
Social Services 21(2): 134-150.
The author of this study conducted a qualitative study with 10 gay Hmong
residing in 6 states. The participants in the research discussed growing up as children of immigrant parents,
generational and cultural conflicts and the racial conflicts, discrimination and violence they encountered. Based
on the findings, the author posits insights into how social workers may better assess and assist with the
challenges confronting persons with multiple and conflicting identities.

Daniel F. Detzner, Aysem R. Senyurekli, Pa Nhia D. Yang and Khadija S. Sheikh. (2009). “Family
Strengths of Hmong and Somali Refugees in the United States.” In Douglas Charles Abbott et. al,
(editors), Strengths and Challenges of New Immigrant Families: Implications for Research,
Education, Policy, and Service. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, pp. 135-154.
 The authors of this
article use in-depth qualitative interviews to explore the strategies three-generation Somali and Hmong families
use to stay strong when confronting challenges. The authors’ results indicate that Somali and Hmong families
learn family strengths through intergenerational transmission; Somali and Hmong families conceive family
strengths as overlapping constructs, Somali families possess greater agreement about family strengths than
Hmong families and the experiences of Somali and Hmong families are consistent with the family strengths
identified in the research literature.  

Tasoulla Hadjiyanni. (2009). “Sacred Places: Culturally Sensitive Housing Designs for Hmong and
Somali Refugees.” Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences 101(1): 30-35.
The author of this study
conducted interviews with Hmong and Somali families residing in Minnesota. The interviews provided insights
into how living in mainstream residential environments may suppress non-Western religious practices and
cultural practices tied to religion. The author suggests that there is a need for culturally sensitive housing
designs and policies that support diversity.

Jeremy Hein and Christopher D. Moore. (2009). “Race Relations Stories: How Southeast Asian
Refugees Interpret the Ancestral Narration of Black and White Peers.” Social Psychology Quarterly
72(1): 9-23.
This research article extends the contact hypothesis (and its classical theoretical constructs of
relations between in and outgroups) to an assessment of Hmong and Cambodian refugees’ recollections of
casual conversations about ancestry with black and white peers.  The authors propose a corollary discourse
hypothesis in order to explain how feelings about intergroup narration and not just frequency of contact,
accentuate or decrease empathy and association in a heterogeneous society.

Sai S.W. Latt. (2009). “Ethnic Politics, Migrant Labour and Agrarian Transformation: A Case Study of
the Hmong and the Shan in a Royal Project in Northern Thailand.” Canada Research Chair in Asian
Studies Working Paper, Number 4, February 2009 – Universite de Montreal.
This research paper
assesses the relationship between ethnic politics and agrarian change. The author considers the experiences
of the Hmong and Shan minority/migrant groups in a Royal Project in Northern Thailand. View this paper online

Richard M. Lee, Kyoung Rae Jung, Jenny C. Su, Alisia G.T.T. Tran and Nazneen F. Bahrassa. (2009).
“The Family Life and Adjustment of Hmong American Sons and Daughters.” Sex Roles 60: 549-558.

The authors of this article examine gender differences in intergenerational family conflict and interrelationships
with psychological and academic adjustment among a sample of 121 Hmong American first-year college

Kajua Lor and Kashea Lovaj. (2008). “Considering Hmong Herbal Medication: Serving the Health
Needs of Wisconsin’s Hmong Population.” The Journal of the Pharmacy Society of Wisconsin.
July/August 2008: 35-38.
This article is intended to provide information about the herbal medicine uses
among the growing Hmong population in the United States. Hmong beliefs about certain chronic diseases and
common preferences for their treatment are also discussed.

Paula McAvoy. (2008). “Should Arranged Marriages for Teenage Girls be Allowed? How Public
Schools Should Respond to Illiberal Cultural Practices.” Theory and Research in Education 6(1): 5-
In this article, the author provides a framework for conceptualizing how public schools in liberal societies
should respond to arranged marriages for girls living within “deeply communitarian” cultural groups. The author
frames her arguments around case studies of culturally arranged marriages from Hmong, Islamic
fundamentalist and Mormon fundamentalist communities.  

Daniel McMahon. (2008). “New Order on China’s Hunan Miao Frontier, 1796-1812.” Journal of
Colonialism and Colonial History 9(1):1-24.
This article discusses factors that led to a new order on the
Hunan Miao Frontier in China in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The Hmong are one of several ethnic
groups classified in China as part of a Miao nationality.

Shinsuke Nakai. (2008). “Reproductive Performance Analysis of Native Pig Smallholders in the
Hillside of Northern Thailand.” Tropical Animal Health and Production 40: 561-566.
In this research
article, the author describes the reproductive performance of native pigs raised in traditional ways and used for
ritual sacrifice in a Hmong village in Northern Thailand.

Shinsuke Nakai. (2008). “Decision-making on the Use of Diverse Combinations of Agricultural
Products and Natural Plants in Pig Feed: A Case Study of Native Pig Smallholders in Northern
Thailand.” Tropical Animal Health and Production 40: 201-208.
This study examines the feed offered to
native pigs in a Hmong village in Northern Thailand.

Anna Paulson and Sherrie L.W. Rhine. (2008). “The Financial Assimilation of an Immigrant Group:
Evidence on the Use of Checking and Savings Accounts and Currency Exchanges.” Journal of
Family and Economic Issues 29: 264-278.
This article assesses the determinants of financial market
participation among Hmong residing in Minneapolis-St. Paul. The authors’ findings indicate controlling for
income and education, Hmong residents are less likely to possess savings accounts and credit cards and are
more likely to use currency exchanges compared to randomly selected non-Hmong households residing in the
same neighborhoods. With time spent in the U.S., however, Hmong economic behavior becomes more like that
have of non-Hmong households. According to the authors’ findings, financial assimilation appears to take 15-
20 years.   

Anne Dopkins Stright, Maysee Yang Herr and Carin Neitzel. (2009). “Maternal Scaffolding of
Children’s Problem Solving and Children’s Adjustment in Kindergarten: Hmong Families in the
United States.” Journal of Educational Psychology 101(1): 207-218.
This article assesses the relationship
between maternal scaffolding of children’s problem solving and children’s adjustment in kindergarten among
Hmong families residing in the United States. Maternal scaffolding is defined as cognitive support and  
directiveness of instruction, praise and criticism.  

Claire Tugault-Lafleur and Sarah Turner. (2009). “Of Rice and Spice: Hmong Livelihoods and
Diversification in the Northern Vietnam Uplands.” Canada Research Chair in Asian Studies Working
Paper, Number 3, January 2009 – Universite de Montreal.
This research paper focuses on the flexible
economic adaptation of Hmong in Sa Pa district, Lao Cai province, Northern Vietnam during the socialist and
post-socialist periods. The authors focus on the features of Hmong livelihood portfolios that allow Hmong
households to adapt to local level political and economic transformations including the creation of a National
Park, limits to forest resource access and new market opportunities. This paper may be viewed online at:

Bhaskar Upadhyay. (2009). “Teaching Science for Empowerment in an Urban Classroom: A Case
Study of a Hmong Teacher.” Equity and Excellence in Education 42(2): 217-232.
This article presents a
case study of a Hmong-origin teacher who reflects on her own schooling experiences for the purpose of
developing a culturally sensitive pedagogy focused on empowerment.

Chia Youyee Vang. (2009). "U.S. Cold War Policies in Laos and the Hmong, 1961-1975." In Toshihiko
Kishi and Yuka Tsuchiya (eds), De-Centering the Cultural Cold War: The US and Asia. Tokyo: Kokusai
This paper examines U.S. policies in Laos and the ways in which its Cold War strategies impacted
Hmong ethnic minorities from the early 1960s through the mid 1970s. Specifically, the author explores the
economic and military aid that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and U.S. Aid for International Development
(USAID) provided to Hmong and other ethnic minorities in northern Laos.  The author argues that
representatives of these U.S. institutions constructed a distinct image of America through the economic and
military aid efforts in part to promote the development of pro-American sentiments among ethnic minorities who
had been on the margin of Lao society. Furthermore, Hmong ethnic minorities exercised some agency in
maneuvering through the American “bureaucracy” in Laos to meet their individual and collective needs. While
most of the knowledge that has been produced in the U.S. about this period privilege the experiences of
Americans on various duties in Laos, this paper engages the voices of Hmong currently residing in the U.S.
who worked side-by-side with Americans at the time to illustrate not only the complexity of this era, but also to
critique the prevalent notion that Hmong ethnic minorities were merely victims of larger political transformations.

Chia Youyee Vang, “Hmong Anti-Communism at Hmong and Abroad” In Ieva Zake (ed). (2009). Anti-
Communist Minorities in the U.S.: Political Activism of Ethnic Refugees. New York: Palgrave
Based on archival research and oral history data, this chapter explores the historical contradictions
in Hmong ethnic divisions beginning during French colonialism through their involvement with U.S. covert
operations in Laos during the American war in Vietnam and their subsequent forced migration to the United
States following the war. It examines how their understanding of communist ideologies or lack thereof shaped
their political struggles as a stateless people. Some writers have portrayed Hmong “homeland politics” as an
organized coalition between exiled leaders and those remaining in the jungles. This chapter argues on the
contrary that Hmong ethnic anti-communist activities have not only been sporadic but divisive and that they
have infiltrated into the daily lives of a segment of the Hmong diaspora in America.

Avonne Yang, Dal Xiong, Eslee Vang and Margaret Dexheimer Pharris. (2009). “Hmong American
Women Living with Diabetes.” Journal of Nursing Scholarship 41(2): 139-148.
The authors recruited 5
Hmong women with Type 2 diabetes and HgbA1c levels over 7.0 from a community-health clinic. Audiotaped in-
home interviews were conducted and data were analyzed to identify common patterns and then were
developed into a play by the authors with the assistance of a female Hmong playwright. The authors conclude
by showing how community dialogue about the findings generated meaningful actions for health.

Avonne Yang. (2009). “Coming Home to Nursing Education for a Hmong Student, Hmong Nurse, and
a Hmong Nurse Educator.” In Susan Dandridge Bosher and Margaret Dexheimer Pharris, (Editors),
Transforming Nursing Education: The Cultural Inclusive Environment. New York: Springer, pp. 123-
In this article, a Hmong nurse describes her experiences as a nursing student, nurse, nurse researcher
and nurse educator in the United States. The purpose of the chapter is to provide information to help
educators and practitioners create a more culturally inclusive atmosphere for Hmong students and clients.


Title: A Hmao (Hua Miao) Songs, Stories and Legends from China
Series Title: LINCOM Text Collections 02
Publication Year: 2009
Publisher: Lincom GmbH
Editors: Nicholas Tapp and Mark Pfeifer
Pages: 600

These wonderful materials come from the A Hmao people of Southwest China, a Miao people related to the
Hmong. Their language is a unique one and this book represents a fair selection of their whole corpus of oral
legends - songs and folk tales about the origins of the world, their oppression by the Chinese, their flight and
exodus, their relations with landlords, together with stories of their social customs, lovesongs and animal fables.
Before the Chinese revolution of 1949 the Parsons brothers, who collected and translated these materials,
worked with the A Hmao as Christian pastors. Before leaving China they had asked the A Hmao to write down
their entire oral corpus in the special form of writing invented by missionaries for their hitherto oral language.
After China opened up in 1978 more of these materials were sent to the Parsons brothers, for all through the
years of socialism the A Hmao had faithfully recorded their entire corpus.

There are four sections - the 'Beginnings', dealing with Creation and the Flood, 'History', dealing with early
leaders, clashes with the Chinese, and the loss of the homeland, 'Social Life', covering shamanism, marriage
and other customs, and 'Narratives' (fantastic stories about orphans, tigers, and many animal fables). Each
legend has a brief introduction by the Parsons brothers followed by their free translation. This selection has
been put together from the entire mass of the collection by Nicholas Tapp, a Professor of Anthropology at the
Australian National University, and Mark Pfeifer, former Head of the Hmong Resource Center Library at the
Hmong Cultural Center in Minnesota. To show the uniqueness of the language, some examples of the word-for-
word translations which accompany each entry in the original are given, and some samples of the special
Pollard script invented for the language. This is a unique corpus of imaginative folklore and linguistic materials
and marks a considerable contribution towards world mythology.


Hmong Studies Research Group Meets at 2009 Association for Asian Studies Conference
A Hmong Studies Research Group held its first meeting at the Association for Asian Studies Conference on a
snowy Saturday night in early April 2009 in Chicago. Robert Entenmann of St. Olaf College provides the
following notes from the meeting:

Those attending the meeting were Larry Ashmun, Amy Bowers, Katherine Bowie, Bob Entenmann, John
Hartmann, Mark Pfeifer, Patricia Symonds, Vinya Sysamouth, Ann Waltner, and Grace Wiersma.  
The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for anyone interested in Hmong studies at the annual
meeting of the Association for Asian Studies.  Bob Entenmann, Larry Ashmun, and Mai Na Lee discussed the
possibility of such a group at the annual meeting of the Midwest Conference on Asian Affairs at St. Olaf College
last October.

There was some discussion about what to call our group – now informally the Hmong Studies Group – should
the name be broadened to include related and similar ethnic groups in Southeast Asia and/or Southwest
China?  We did not resolve this question, and will return to it later.

We plan to meet again at AAS in Philadelphia next year, probably at 6:00 p.m. Thursday, March 25, 2010.

Several announcements were made:

1.  The University of Minnesota - Twin Cities and the University of Wisconsin - Madison have received a Luce
Foundation grant to promote Hmong Studies.  The University of Wisconsin will create a faculty position, and the
University of Minnesota will offer graduate and postdoctoral fellowships.

2.  The University of Minnesota Press, the University of Arizona Press, the University of North Carolina Press
and Oregon State University Press received a Mellon Foundation grant to publish works on indigenous
peoples.  The grant will provide subventions for new books.

3.  In the Spring of 2009, The Chazen Art Museum at the University of Wisconsin - Madison presented an
exhibit on Hmong textiles, “Writing With Thread.”

4.  Prasit Leepreecha, a Thai Hmong scholar at the Center for Ethnic Studies and Development at Chiangmai
University, will be at the University of Wisconsin - Madison next fall.

5.  The deadline for submissions for volume 10 of the Hmong Studies Journal was May 30, 2009.  The Hmong
Studies Journal is into its second year of distribution relationships with major peer-reviewed scholarly journal
article database aggegrators ProQuest and EBSCO. Mark Pfeifer also reported that the Hmong Studies
Newsletter has about 250 subscribers.

6.  The conference volume for the first International Conference on Hmong Studies at Concordia College is

7.  Larry Ashmun has been appointed to the board of the Hmong Culture Center of Wisconsin.

University of Minnesota Awards Hmong Studies Fellowships
Erica Lee from the Asian American Studies Program at the University of Minnesota submits the following news:
a.   Prof. Leena Her accepted the University of Minnesota Hmong Studies Postdoctoral Fellowship position. She
is currently a Visiting Assistant Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. She was also a Fulbright
Scholar in Laos and has a Stanford Ph.D. Her research interests include: educational research and linguistic
anthropology. Her Dissertation was titled: “Educational Opportunity, Minority Status, and Discursive Practices in
the Hmong Diaspora” Her Post-doc research has included the following: “Explaining Inequality: A comparative
analysis of explanations of minority academic failure in Laos and the U.S.”; “Privatizing English Lessons in
Laos: Democratizing English or Reproducing Economic Disparities in Ethnic Hmong Communities?;” “Gender
Ideologies and Educational Opportunity in Laos: Lao-Hmong Women’s Resistance Against Disobedient
Daughter Stories.”

b.  Alisia Giac-Thao Tran has accepted the University of Minnesota Hmong Studies Graduate Fellow
(Psychology) Her interests include: perceived discrimination, minority mental health, parental racial/ethnic
socialization and Asian American populations.

Talk and Book signing Held for Cooking for the Heart: The Hmong Kitchen in America
A talk and book signing with Sami Scripter and Sheng Yang, authors of the new book: Cooking for the Heart:
The Hmong Kitchen in America from the University of Minnesota Press was held Thursday, May 21, 2009 at
Hmong Cultural Center in Saint Paul.

Event sponsors included the University of Minnesota Press, Hmong Cultural Center’s Hmong Resource Center
Library, the Immigration History Research Center, the University of Minnesota’s Asian American Studies
Program, the Hmong Archives and Hmong ABC Bookstore. To view pictures from this special event click this

To learn more about the cookbook visit this website:

Revamped Hmong Archives Website
The Hmong Archives in Saint Paul has posted a newly revamped website. To view the new site visit this link:

Hmong Studies Journal Panel Held at HND's 2009 Hmong National Conference in Appleton, WI
A panel with scholars with articles in Hmong Studies Journal Volume 9 took place at HND’s Hmong National
Conference at the Radisson Paper Valley Hotel in Appleton, WI. More than 50 persons filled the meeting room
to capacity at this session.

Presentations in the HND session included:
Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD, Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi.  
“An Overview of the Hmong Studies Journal and Hmong Studies Journal Volume 9” Online link to view

Linda A. Gerdner, Ph.D., RN, Stanford University School of Medicine. “Translating Research Findings Into a
Hmong American Children’s Book to Promote Understanding of Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease.” Online link
to view paper:

John Kha Lee Ph.D., Capella University. “Hmong Parental Involvement and Support: A Comparison Between
Families of High and Low Achieving High School Seniors.” Co-Author:  Katherine Green Ph.D., Online link to
view paper:


Hmong Cultural Center in Saint Paul has published its 2008 annual organization report. View it here: http:


Hmong Cultural Center’s Hmong Resource Center library has a new user-friendly website at:

The library’s complete holdings are listed on the website in frequently updated holdings lists including:

- About 500 Hmong-related books. A complete and updated list (December 2008) is here:

More than 350 Hmong-related dissertations and theses. A complete and updated list (February 2009) is here:

- About 750 Hmong-related academic journal articles from peer-reviewed journals. A list of the journal articles in
the collection (December 2008) is here:

More comprehensive in its focus than any university or public library, the Hmong Cultural Center Resource
Library is the largest collection of Hmong-related academic research publications in Minnesota and most likely
the United States. The most distinctive and specialized portions of the library are the dissertations/theses and
peer-reviewed journal article collections.

For information about using this unique, special collections library call Xai Lor, Cher Vue or Ray Murray at 651-


In December 2008, the  Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center published the online edition of volume 9 of
the Hmong Studies Journal. An internet-based journal, The Hmong Studies Journal is the only peer-reviewed
academic publication devoted to the scholarly discussion of Hmong history, Hmong culture, Hmong people, and
other facets of the Hmong experience in the U.S., Asia and around the world. The Hmong Studies Journal has
now published 11 online issues in 9 volumes with a total of 72 scholarly articles since 1996. The articles from
the journal are also distributed as part of databases on the websites of thousands of academic and public
libraries through content sharing agreements with aggregators EBSCO and PROQUEST. Click below for more
information and links to Volume 9 of the Hmong Studies Journal.


A new bibliographic guide to Hmong Studies research published between 2005-2008 is available for viewing at:


The U.S. Census Bureau released national-level Hmong data from the 2007 American Community Survey at
the end of August 2008. Hmong state estimates from this data source have recently been posted. View the new
data here:

For a tutorial about how to access Hmong census data online visit:


Doing research on a Hmong Studies research topic? More than 30 Comprehensive and frequently updated
online subject bibliographies of Hmong Studies works are available at the following link:

A newly created 2007-Present research bibliography is updated every few weeks with information about the
latest research publications in Hmong Studies, online links to text are included where applicable:


Volumes 4-8 of the Hmong Studies Journal are available for order in a physical, print format. For more info visit
the following link:


A growing library of links to full-text research articles and other documents related to Hmong Studies and
Southeast Asian American Studies is available at the following link:


A bibliography consisting of more than 600 annotations of Hmong Studies-related scholarly research works
published between 1996-2006 is available from The Scarecrow Press, a subsidiary of Rowman Littlefield
specializing in academic bibliographies and reference works. This volume represents the first Hmong
Studies annotated research bibliography published since the mid-1990s. To learn more about this work visit the
following webpage:

You can check to see if your local or university library has this bibliography yet at the following link:

If your library doesn't have it yet, please encourage them to get it for their collections.

In the Fall of 2007, the Asian American Press newspaper featured a short article about this work:


The Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center is partnering with Craig Rice to provide up-to-date content
related to community educational events, Hmong resources and Hmong Studies for the WWW Hmong
Homepage. Craig Rice co-founded the WWW Hmong Homepage in early 1994. The website was one of the first
to provide substantive educational resources related to Hmong-Americans and Hmong around the world. The
WWW Hmong Homepage is still one of the most heavily visited and linked educational websites related to the
Hmong. To view the WWW Hmong Homepage and learn about upcoming educational events visit:


A moderated message board intended as a forum for information about existing and new
research resources in Hmong Studies is available at: