Summer 2012


ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION: The Hmong Studies Newsletter has since 2001 provided a very unique and consistent
source of up-to-date information about new works in Hmong Studies and Hmong-related research resources. To
access back issues of this online publication dating back to 2001 visit:

Hmong Studies Newsletter Editor: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD


The Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center ( is the online home of the Hmong Studies
Journal academic journal. This unique scholarly site also contains extensive bibliographies in Hmong Studies as well
as census data and an online research paper library.

Many of the Hmong Studies articles, books and dissertations listed in this newsletter and on the website may be found
at the Hmong Resource Center Library ( at the Hmong Cultural Center in Saint Paul, the
largest depository of Hmong Studies academic journal articles and graduate theses and dissertations in the United

The Hmong Archives is a comprehensive historical archive of more than 115,000 Hmong-related documents, books
and artifacts. Located in Saint Paul, MN, visit to learn about the Hmong Archives collection.  



Sally A. Baas. (2011). What Does It Mean to be Hmong in the Twin Cities of Minnesota, According to the 18
Clan Council and Associated Hmong Men and Women Leaders? EdD Dissertation, Saint Mary's University
of Minnesota.
This graduate research study provides findings of a research study of Hmong American leaders
related to key characteristics associated with the maintenance of a Hmong identity in a Minnesota context. The
researcher's results focused on six themes: language (to speak, read, and write the Hmong language); culture (to sew
and wear traditional Hmong clothes; engagement in spiritual life (to understand and participate in Hmong rituals and
to play  traditional musical instruments); to respect one‟s family; and the provision of leadership to assure the
continuation of Hmong practices, “to be Hmong, in the Hmong way”.

Prasit Leepreecha, et al. (Editors). (2011). The Lao Hmong in Thailand: State Policies and Operations (1975-
2009). Bangkok: Sriboon Computer-Printing.
This scholarly anthology includes several articles related to the
experiences of the Lao Hmong in Thailand since the end of the Vietnam War era. The compilation was produced by
the Asian Research Center for Migration, Institute of Asian Studies of Chulalongkorn University. Articles in the volume
include: “The Hmong Ethnic Group in the Context of the Modern Nation-State”,”Hmong Displaced Persons from Laos
in Shelters for Displaced Persons in Thailand: Resettlement and Repatriation,” “The Lao Hmong in Thamkrabok as a
National Security Problem and Hmong Resettlement in the U.S.” as well as “The Repatriation of Ban Huay Nam Khao
and Nongkhai Lao Hmong Back to Laos.”

Kao Xiong. (2011). The effects of language practices of Hmong students on Hmong families. PhD
Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
This dissertation study addresses the following interrelated
issues among 5 Hmong families in Central WI, language practices, family relationships, role reversal, parental
involvement, loss of heritage language and code switching.

Academic Journal Articles/Other

Xiaoyun Cai, et al. (2011). "Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia
during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes." PLoS ONE 6(8) 1-10.
This article discusses a
molecular anthropological lineage study of the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-
Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed across Southeast Asia and East Asia.

Lisa L. Capps. (2011). "Ua Neeb Khu: A Hmong American Healing Ceremony." Journal of Holistic Nursing 29
(2): 98-106.
 The researcher utilized a qualitative ethnographic case study method with participant observation to
analyze a spiritual healing ceremony performed by a shaman healer (txiv neeb) for an elderly Hmong American male
residing in the Midwestern United States. The healing ritual was filmed and reviewed with the shaman healer to
identify symbolic meanings and processes.

Siu-Woo Cheung. (2012). "Appropriating Otherness and the Contention of Miao Identity in China." The
Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 13(2): 142-169.
This paper discusses the construction of the Miao identity
category in China by the Han majority and minority ethnic populations. The author postulates that in the face of
Imperial expansion and nation-building projects in pre-modern and modern Chinese history, non-Han natives actively
appropriated Miao otherness to form their own identities, through which the Miao ethnic boundary was constructed
and demarcated within the Chinese state.

Christina M. Esposito. (2012). "An Acoustic and Electroglottographic Study of White Hmong Tone and
Phonation." Journal of Phonetics 40: 466–476.
This study investigates tone and phonation in White Hmong.
Thirty-two speakers were recorded producing words with the seven tones and audio and electroglottographic
recordings were made.

Lisa Franzen-Castle and Chery Smith. (2012). "Shifts in Hmong Culture: Competing Medical Frameworks."
Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, Epub Ahead of Print.
This paper  examines the ways in which language
contraction, acculturation, and perception of modernity impact medicinal practices among younger and older
generations of Hmong. The authors conducted focus groups with newly immigrated and well established Hmong adults
(n = 69) and children (n = 68) in St. Paul/Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Fiona M. Garlich, et al. (2012). "Poisoning and suicide by cyanide jewelry cleaner in the U.S. Hmong
community: A case series." Clinical Toxicology (2012), 50, 136–140.
The authors of this study describe eight
cases in which cyanide-containing products were ingested by Hmong patients. Seven cases were suicide attempts
involving the ingestion of a locally-purchased substance intended for cleaning metal, coins, or jewelry.  The
researchers suggest that clinicians should be aware that unusual and potentially lethal products containing cyanide
are widely available at ethnic markets.

Trisha Halvorson, et al. (2012). "Pregnancy and birth in Minnesota's Hmong Population: Changing
Practices. Minnesota Medicine 95(5): 49-52.
This article summarizes how some of the perinatal practices of the
Hmong have evolved over time in Minnesota as well as how providers have adapted in order to provide their Hmong
patients with culturally sensitive care.

Hee Yun Lee, Kathy Lytle, Pa Nhia Yang and Terry Lum. (2010). "Mental health literacy in Hmong and
Cambodian elderly refugees: a barrier to understanding, recognizing, and responding to depression."
International Journal on Aging and Human Development 71(4): 323-44.
This study assesses mental health
literacy, specifically focusing on depression, among Southeast Asian elderly refugees residing in the
Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. The authors held focus groups with nine mental health
professionals who work with SEA elders. Four themes emerged from the researcher's data: 1) a lack of knowledge
about specific mental disorders, 2) culture-specific knowledge and beliefs on the causes of depression, 3) a lack of
awareness about professional help, and 4) cultural attitudes toward seeking mental health services.

Urvashi Mulasi-Pokhriyal and Chery Smith. (2012). "Comparison of the Block Kid’s Food Frequency
Questionnaire with a 24 h dietary recall methodology among Hmong-American children, 9–18 years of
age." British Journal of Nutrition, 1-7.
This study investigates the appropriateness of specific dietary assessment
measures among Hmong-American children (n 335) of 9–18 years of age.

Urvashi Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Chery Smith, and Lisa Franzen-Castle. (2012). "Investigating dietary
acculturation and intake among US-born and Thailand/Laos-born Hmong-American children aged 9–18
years." Public Health Nutrition: 15(1), 176–185.
The authors of this study assessed the dietary intake
of Hmong children and whether acculturation and/or time lived in the USA influenced dietary intake, BMI and
nutritional status. The researchers included in their sample three hundred and thirty-five Hmong children aged 9–18
years from Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA. The authors observed that approximately half of their participants were either
overweight or obese. US-born children were significantly heavier, taller, had a higher BMI, and in general consumed
more energy and saturated fat than those who were born in Thailand/Laos and were living in the USA for less than 5

Christian Postert, Udo Dannlowski, Jörg M. Müller, Carsten Konrad. (2012). "Beyond the Blues: Towards a
Cross-Cultural Phenomenology of Depressed Mood." Psychopathology 2012;45:185-192.
This qualitative
study examines English and Laotian Hmong semantic and pragmatic differences in depressed mood and investigates
their relevance for cross-cultural psychiatric research and practice. The study is based upon ethnographic fieldwork
conducted from 2000 to 2002 among the Hmong in Laos.

Toshiyuki Sakuragi and Judith W. Fuller. (2012). "Shape and Function in Hmong Classifier Choices."
Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. Epub Ahead of Print.
This study looks at classifiers in the Hmong
language with a particular focus on gaining insights into the underlying cognitive process of categorization. Forty-
three Hmong speakers participated in the study. The results of the experiments indicate limitations of explaining
common Hmong classifiers in terms of configurational characteristics and suggested a need for greater attention to
functional characteristics.

Kamonnate Srithi, Chusie Trisonthi, Prasit Wangpakapattanawong, Prachaya Srisanga and Henrik Balslev.
(2012). "Plant Diversity in Hmong and Mien Homegardens in Northern Thailand
." Economic Botany 66(2):
The authors of this study surveyed 180 home gardens in three Hmong and three Mien villages in northern
Thailand to study floristic diversity and composition and to assess the impact of forced migration and ecological
conditions for the development of the rich homegarden flora. They also looked at the role of culturally important
species as carriers of cultural identity. The researchers observed 406 species: 341 (99 families) and 270 species (90
families) in Hmong and Mien homegardens, respectively.

Julia Voorhees, Keiko Goto, Stephanie Bianco-Simeral, Cindy Wolff (2012). "Impact of the Harvest of the
Month Program on Low-Income Hmong and White Middle School Students." Journal of Nutrition Education
and Behavior 43(4), Supplement 2: S152-S154.
The researchers note the absence of studies demonstrating
effective fruit and vegetable consumption interventions among Hmong youth despite a growing body of evidence that
obesity rates are higher among Hmong youth than the national averages for Asian or non-Hispanic white middle
school-age children. This article describes the use of the Harvest of the Month (HOTM) intervention to effect such

EMBROIDERY WEBSITE:, a partnership between the Hmong Cultural Center and the Hmong Archives and funded by the
National Endowment for the Arts and the Asian Pacific Endowment of the Saint Paul Foundation has launched:

Very likely the first project of its kind, the online virtual Hmong arts museum features online exhibits of 213 Hmong
embroidered pieces of varying styles and eras from the collections of the Hmong Cultural Center and the Hmong
Archives in Saint Paul. Featured on the website are comprehensive exhibits of Hmong embroidery including paj ntaub
storycloths, applique, reverse applique, batik, Hmong attire, inspired crafts and ornaments.


Hmong Cultural Center's Resource Center Library in Saint Paul has a new website at The
website provides information about the library's services and location and access to complete catalog lists for the
institution's dissertations, journal articles and book holdings, along with issues of the library's quarterly newsletter. In
addition, the strong collection of
Health-related research materials in the library is the focus of a page on the site.


The peer-reviewed Hmong Studies Journal has a new website of its own which may be viewed at The website includes access to all of the volumes of the journal, lists of articles
organized by topic and author name and information about submission policies. The Hmong Studies Journal will
publish two issues at the end of 2012, volume 13 and a special Hmong in the 2010 U.S. Census report with
contributions from several scholars of Hmong American Studies.  


Doing research on a Hmong Studies research topic? More than 40 comprehensive and frequently updated online
subject bibliographies of Hmong Studies works are available at the following link:

A 2007-Present research bibliography is updated every few weeks with information about the latest research
publications in Hmong Studies, online links to text are included where applicable:


Hmong Cultural Center Resource Library (Saint Paul) Summer 2012 Newsletter

The informative Spring 2012 edition of the Hmong Cultural Center Resource Library newsletter may be viewed at this

Lao Studies Conference at UW-Madison April 2013

Ian Baird of UW-Madison sends information about the Call for Papers at the 4th International Conference on Lao
Studies to be held in Madison next Spring. Presentations related to Hmong in Laos and Hmong American Studies are


The Hmong Studies Journal has a Facebook page and a Twitter feed. Updates about the journal and items of interest
pertaining to Hmong Studies research are posted on the Facebook and Twitter pages.

To view the Hmong Studies Journal Facebook page visit:

To view the Hmong Studies Journal Twitter feed visit:


Volumes 4-11 of the Hmong Studies Journal are available for order in a physical, print format through Hmong ABC
Bookstore in Saint Paul.

For more info visit the following link:


A growing library of links to full-text research articles and other documents related to Hmong Studies and Southeast
Asian American Studies is available at the following link:


A Bibliographic Guide to Hmong Studies Research 2005-2010 is now available online. This guide is intended as an
introduction to recent research in different subfields of Hmong Studies including Health, Socioeconomics, Race
Relations, Education, Gender, and Hmong in Asia Studies. The guide also includes observations on Areas in Need of
Additional Research and on the development of Hmong Studies more generally. To view this publication visit:


The Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center is partnering with Craig Rice to provide up-to-date content related to
community educational events, Hmong resources and Hmong Studies for the WWW Hmong Homepage. Craig Rice co-
founded the WWW Hmong Homepage in early 1994. The website was one of the first to provide substantive
educational resources related to Hmong-Americans and Hmong around the world. The WWW Hmong Homepage is
still one of the most heavily visited and linked resource portal websites related to the Hmong. To view the recently
revamped WWW Hmong Homepage and learn about news in Hmong Studies visit:


A moderated message board intended as a forum for information about existing and new
research resources in Hmong Studies is available at: