Winter 2009 (January-March 2009)


ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION: The Hmong Studies Resource Newsletter has since 2001 provided a very unique
and consistent source of up-to-date information about new works in Hmong Studies and
Hmong-related research resources. To access back issues of this online publication dating back to
2001 visit:

Hmong Studies Newsletter Editor: Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD


The Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center ( is the online home of the Hmong
Studies Journal academic journal. The unique scholarly site also contains extensive bibliographies in Hmong
Studies as well as census data and an online research paper library.

Many of the Hmong Studies articles, books and dissertations listed in this newsletter and on the website may be
found at the Hmong Resource Center Library at the Hmong Cultural Center in Saint Paul, perhaps the largest
depository of Hmong Studies academic articles and dissertations in the United States. The Hmong Resource
Center Library of the Hmong Cultural Center is open to the public Monday through Friday from 9 – 5. Other
times are available by appointment. The Hmong Resource Center is located in the Hmong Cultural Center’s
offices at 995 University Avenue, Suite 214 in Saint Paul. Phone: 651-917-9937. Librarians: Xai Lor, Cher Vue
and Ray Murray. E-Mail:

Link to Hmong Resource Center Library Online Catalog:



Xia Nikky Lor. (2008). “Reconstructing My Personal and Professional Identity Narrative Inquiry of My
Hmong American Experiences.” M.A. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach.
In this graduate
thesis, the author reconstructs their personal and professional identity through a study of experiences as a
Hmong immigrant growing up in the United States. The author concludes that their personal and professional
identity has been very much affected by experiences of acculturation, assimilation and enculturation.
Implications of the findings for multicultural education and anti-racist pedagogy are presented.

Mitchell Paul Odgen. (2008). “Refugee Utopias: (Re) theorizing Refugeeism Through Cultural
Production of the Hmong Diaspora.” PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Examining audio and
visual magnetic media, orthographies and literacy practices and literary movements and texts, this graduate
study provides a broad overview of Hmong diasporic practices. According to the abstract, the author in his
analysis “offers active and engaged frameworks for the contemplation of the contemporary moment of cultural
production throughout the Hmong diaspora.”

Zoua Vang. (2008). “Hmong Radio: Its Listeners and Objectivity of the News.” M.A. Thesis, California
State University, Fresno.
This graduate study examines the reasons why Hmong in Fresno listen to Hmong
radio and also analyzes the content of Hmong radio news programs. The researcher found that most young
Hmong did not actively listen to Hmong radio. However, middle-aged and elderly Hmong reported that they
used it as a source of information, personal identity, social interaction and entertainment. The author also
conducted a content analysis of ten 1 hour news segments from two Hmong radio stations. The author found
that news anchors were used for commercials and sponsorship announcements, sources weren’t given for
nearly half the stories and personal opinions were frequently expressed.

Pahoua Yang. (2008). “A Phenomenological Study of the Coming Out Experiences of Gay and
Lesbian Hmong.” PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.
This doctoral study use qualitative methods
to examine some of the internal and external processes associated with the coming out experiences of gay and
lesbian Hmong. Eleven participants, five men and six women, were interviewed for the research.  

Academic Journal Articles/Other

Martha Bigelow, Letitia Basford and Esther Smidt. (2008). “Supporting Hmong Newcomers’ Academic
and Social Transition to Elementary School.” Journal of Southeast Asian American Education and
Advancement 3: 1-22.
This article reports on the perceptions teachers and educational assistants had about
how well Transitional Language Centers and a Language Academy program met the needs of elementary aged
Hmong children resettled in the Saint Paul Public School system from Wat Tham Krabok. View this article online

Kathleen A. Culhane-Pera, MaiKia Moua, Terese A. DeFor and Jay Desai. (2008).“Cardiovascular
Disease Risks in Hmong Refugees from Wat Tham Krabok, Thailand.” Journal of Immigrant Minority
Health. (Published online 20 December 2008).
There were no epidemiological studies of cardiovascular
disease conducted with Hmong refugees arriving in the U.S. during the 1970s through the 1990s. To fill this
gap in the research, the authors of this study assessed the prevalence of CVD and CVD risk factors in 1,462
Hmong refugees newly arrived from Wat Tham Krabok in Saint Paul, MN from 2004-2006.

Lynne M. Dearborn (2008). “Reconstituting Hmong Culture and Traditions in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.”
Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review 19(11): 37-49.
Using Amos Rapoport’s “Culture-Core
Model” this article analyzes the efforts of Hmong to reterritorialize their culture and traditions in some of
Milwaukee’s inner city neighborhoods.

Lynne M. Dearborn. (2008). “Socio-Spatial Patterns of Acculturation: Examining Hmong Habitation in
Milwaukee’s North-side Neighborhoods.” Buildings and Landscapes 15: 58-77.
This paper describes
evolving patterns of Hmong residential settlement in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The author compares Hmong
residential enclaves in different neighborhoods of the city, household patterns and spatial configurations of
Hmong homes.   

Duong Bich Hanh. (2008). “Contesting Marginality: Consumption, Networks, and Everyday Practices
among Hmong Girls in Sa Pa, Northwestern Vietnam.” Journal of Vietnamese Studies 3(3): 231-260.
This paper investigates the processes by which Hmong girls in Sa Pa, Vietnam adopt modern practice,
construct a symbolic cosmopolitan space and consume its products as a way to challenge stereotypes imposed
on them by the larger Vietnamese society as both marginalized and also romanticized “Others.”

Linda A. Gerdner, Toni Tripp-Reimer and Deu Yang. (2008). “Perception and Care of Elder Hmong
Americans with Chronic Confusion or Tem Toob.” Hallym International Journal of Aging 10(2): 111-
This ethnographic study explores the perception, care and preferred treatment methods of Hmong
American elders with chronic confusion. The research was conducted with 25 Hmong Americans residing in
Minnesota and Wisconsin.

Stacey J. Lee. (2008). “The Ideological Blackening of Hmong American Youth.” From Lois Weis, Ed.
The Way Class Works: Readings on School, Family, and the Economy. New York: Routledge, 305-314.
This book chapter looks at the role that schools play in the racialization of Hmong American youth. The chapter
is based on ethnographic research conducted at a high school in the Midwestern U.S.

Pao Lor. (2008). “Key Life Experiences Contributing to Hmong Students’ Matriculation.” Multicultural
Education 16(1): 39-47.
This study investigates the life experiences that contribute to Hmong college students’
matriculation, retention and graduation from college. The research was conducted among 18 Hmong graduates
of the University of Wisconsin system.

Franklin Ng. (2008). “From Laos to America: The Hmong Community in the United States.” In Huping
Ling, Editor, Emerging Voices: Experiences of Underrepresented Asian Americans. Piscataway, NJ:
Rutgers University Press, 17-33.
This article presents an overview of the Hmong community in the United
States and important issues to the Hmong population including relationships with Hmong and Miao groups in
China, relations with Laos,  bifurcation of Hmong leadership in the U.S., interethnic relations and political
empowerment as well as religion and culture change.  

Bic Ngo. (2008). “The Affective Consequences of Cultural Capital: Feelings of Powerlessness,
Gratitude and Faith among Hmong Refugee Parents.” Journal of Southeast Asian American
Education and Advancement 3: 1-19.
In this article, the author examines the impact of the exclusionary
characteristics of cultural capital upon refugee Hmong parents from Wat Tham Krabok. The author highlights
themes of uncertainty, powerlessness, gratitude and faith that parents raised when discussing their children’s
education. The author suggests that efforts to pay attention to the affective (emotional) consequences of
cultural capital is crucial for understanding the outlook of refugee Hmong parents in relation to their children’s
education. View this paper online at:

Elizabeth M. Saewyc, Wendy Solsvig and Laurel Edinburgh. (2008). “The Hmong Youth Task Force:
Evaluation of a Coalition to Address the Sexual Exploitation of Young Runaways.” Public Health
Nursing 25(1): 69-76.
This article presents the findings of an evaluation of the Hmong Youth Task Force, a
coalition formed to address a growing issue in a Midwestern state of Hmong girls running away from home,
being truant from school and experiencing subsequent sexual exploitation.

Paoze Thao. (2008). “Cultural Transition and Adjustment: The Experiences of the Mong in the United
States.” In Huping Ling, Editor, Emerging Voices: Experiences of Underrepresented Asian
Americans. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 34-51.
This article provides concise background
information on the Mong (Mong Leng) including their family life, social, political, and linguistic structures and
reasons for their migration to the United States. Also discusses are some social and educational issues
confronting the community. While Mong Leng (or Blue Hmong) are the author’s stated focus, the limited
statistics presented are those for both Mong (Mong Leng) and Hmong (Hmong Der) as the U.S. census doesn’t
distinguish between the two groups. In addition, the term Mong is used in parts of the chapter to describe both
populations in the United States.

Sarah Turner and Jean Michaud. “Imaginative and Adaptive Economic Strategies for Hmong
Livelihoods in Lao Cai Province, Northern Vietnam.” Journal of Vietnamese Studies 3(3): 158-190.
This article examines economic strategies of Hmong living in a region of Northern Vietnam. The primary
emphasis of the paper is on Hmong womens’ involvement in the textile trade as a means of household support.

Kyla L. Wahlstrom. (2008). “`Are We There Yet?’ Examining the Principal’s Role in the Integration of
Hmong Refugee Children into Elementary Schools.” Journal of Southeast Asian American Education
and Advancement 3: 1-17.
This article assesses the efforts of four elementary school principals to create a
welcoming culture for arriving Wat Tham Krabok refugee children in Saint Paul, MN. This paper may be viewed
online at:

Chimeng Yang. (2008). “Parent-Child Conflict within the Mong Family.” In Huping Ling, Editor,
Emerging Voices: Experiences of Underrepresented Asian Americans. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers
University Press, 218-235.
This chapter discusses factors that tend to cause parent-child conflict within Mong
(Mong Leng) families in the United States. Also discussed are problems that sometimes arise in parent relations
with teachers and school officials.  

Eric Yang. (2008). “Recreating Hmong History: An Examination of Videos.”
Amerasia Journal 34(3):19-35.
This paper assesses three different videos about Hmong history that have
been created and uploaded onto YouTube by Hmong American students in recent years. The author explores
various elements of these videos including images, written text and oral comments.

Kou Yang. (2008). “Hmong American Contemporary Experience.” In Huping Ling, Editor, Emerging
Voices: Experiences of Underrepresented Asian Americans. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University
Press, 236-253.
This article presents an overview of the Hmong experience in the United States since the late
1970s. Sections of the chapter discuss population distributions, the role of community leadership and mutual
assistance associations, changes within Hmong American families, political participation, welfare and labor
participation, business development and enterprises, education, and problems and needs.

Richard C. Yang and Paul C. Mills. (2008). “Dietary and Lifestyle Practices of Hmong in California.”
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 19: 1258-1269.
This paper examines the dietary
and lifestyle patterns of 248 Hmong in Fresno, California. The study found that more than 63% of Hmong were
overweight or obese. 57% could speak English fluently and more than 70% were economically impoverished.
The authors found that rice, chicken, beef and eggs were the most frequently identified food items along with
fruits and vegetables. The research sample exhibited low alcohol and tobacco consumption.

Richard C. Yang, Paul K. Mills and Kiumarss Nasseri. (2009). “Patterns of Mortality in California
Hmong, 1988-2002.” Journal of Immigrant Minority Health (2009 Feb 10 Epub ahead of Print).
purpose of this study was to fill a gap in the literature related to mortality patterns among the Hmong. The
authors examined causes of death (COD) and compared age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMR) in the Hmong
with those of the non-Hispanic white population (NHW) in California. This study was based on 2,744 Hmong
deaths that occurred in California from 1988 to 2002. The authors conclude that the most interesting findings
of this study are the differences in mortality rates between Hmong and the NHW population. The authors
observed that Hmong had experienced 1.3-1.9 times higher mortality rates for injuries and poisonings,
digestive diseases, prenatal conditions, endrocine, nutritional, metabolic and immunity orders as well as
infections and parasitic illnesses, and congenital anomalies when compared to NHW.


Talk and book signing with Sami Scripter and Sheng Yang, Authors of the new book: Cooking for the
Heart: The Hmong Kitchen in America from the University of Minnesota Press.
3:00-5:00 p.m. Thurs. May 21, 2009
Where: Hmong Cultural Center (View Map)
995 University Ave. W., Suite 214
Sunrise Market Building
St. Paul, MN 55104
(Parking available in back of building)
More Details: 651-917-9937 or 612-627-1932.

Hmong recipe food samples and refreshments will be served at this event. The Hmong Cultural Center’s
Dancers and Qeej players will also perform. Books will be available for purchase.

Event sponsors include:
University of Minnesota Press, Hmong Cultural Center’s Hmong Resource Center
Library, the Immigration History Research Center, the University of Minnesota’s Asian American Studies
Program, the Hmong Archives and Hmong ABC Bookstore.

Click here to view a flyer for this very special event.

Additional Talks and Book Signings will be held

Saturday, May 23, 2009, 10:30 am
Mill City Farmers Market
704 2nd Street S.
Minneapolis, MN 55401

Saturday, May 23, 2009 2:00 pm
Barnes & Noble-HarMar Mall
2100 North Snelling Ave
Roseville, MN 55113


Hmong Cultural Center’s Hmong Resource Center library has a new user-friendly website at

The library’s complete holdings are listed on the website including:

- About 500 Hmong-related books.

- More than 350 Hmong-related dissertations and theses

- About 750 Hmong-related academic journal articles from peer-reviewed journals.

More comprehensive in its focus than any university or public library, the Hmong Cultural Center Resource
Library is the largest collection of Hmong-related academic research publications in Minnesota and most likely
the United States. The most distinctive and specialized portions of the library are the dissertations/theses and
peer-reviewed journal article collections.

For information about using this unique, special collections library call Xai Lor, Cher Vue or Ray Murray at 651-


The Hmong Studies Journal is accepting submissions for volume 10. The deadline for submissions is May 30,
2009. More information is available here:


(The following item was submitted by Ray Murray, Volunteer Librarian at the Hmong Cultural Center’s Hmong
Resource Center library)

In mid-February, 2009, the descendants of Samuel Pollard came to the St. Paul area to visit family here.  
Earlier, they had sent along a copy of a book (privately printed by the family in the mid-90's) - the copy in
response to a request from the two Hmong research agencies in town: the Hmong Archives and Hmong Cultural
Center Resource Center Library.

Samuel Pollard, 1864-1915, was a Methodist missionary in the Yunnan area of China.  He reached ChaoTong
in 1888, and a mission was set up there in 1892.  He lost his companion missionary Frank Dymond through
small pox, got married, and had three sons by 1901.  He went around Miaoland with scouts, and was given land
at Stone Gateway near ChaoTang, where his fourth son, Ernest, was born in 1906.  (This son reprinted the
books in the mid-90's.)  By 1912, Samuel Pollard had set up a script for the some of the Miao languages, and
was busy translating the New Testament using that script.  He completed his book IN UNKNOWN CHINA, and
finished translating the New Testament, before dying September 15, 1915.

The three books in one volume, now printed with the title: THE SAM POLLARD "OMNIBUS" include: TIGHT
privately printed in the mid-1990's.  

With generous permission of the Pollard family, two copies were made by photocopy of the "Omnibus."  The
resulting books were spiral bound each in two volumes.  The photos from THE STORY OF THE MIAO, not in
the reprint, were added to the photocopies.

One copy was given to the Hmong Cultural Center's Resource Center Library, 995 University Avenue West,
Suite 214, St. Paul, MN  55104 and to the Hmong Archives, 298-1/2 University Avenue West, St. Paul, MN  
55103, on the 2nd floor above the Hmong ABC Bookstore. Because the original books will not likely be
available again, and the copy given for these copies is the last extra copy of the "Omnibus," the copies at the
research libraries will not be available for loan. Arrangements are being made with Concordia University Library
in St. Paul, to place the paperbound donated "90's" printing (used for the above copies) there, to be available
for "in-library-use" interlibrary loan access, and on-site use at this library.  


A panel with scholars with articles in Hmong Studies Journal Volume 9 will take place at HND’s Hmong National
Conference at the Radisson Paper Valley Hotel in Appleton, WI on April 3, 2009 from 3:30-5:00 PM in the
Aspen Room.

Panel Members include:

Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD, Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi.  
“An overview of the Hmong Studies Journal and Hmong Studies Journal Volume 9”

Linda A. Gerdner, Ph.D., RN, Stanford University School of Medicine. “Translating Research Findings Into a
Hmong American Children’s Book to Promote Understanding of Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease.” Online link
to view paper:

John Kha Lee Ph.D., Capella University. “Hmong Parental Involvement and Support: A Comparison Between
Families of High and Low Achieving High School Seniors.” Co-Author:  Katherine Green Ph.D., Online link to
view paper:

Zha Blong Xiong, Ph.D., University of Minnesota. “Adolescents’ Problem Behaviors and Parent-Adolescent
Conflicts in Hmong Immigrant Families.” Co-Authors: Arunya Tuicomepee, Ph.D. and Kathyrn B. Rettig, Ph.D.,
Online link to view paper:

For more information about the 14th Annual Hmong National Conference, visit Hmong National Development’s
website at:


Larry Ashmun from UW-Madison submits information about a PhD dissertation available online. “Intra-Ethnic
Conflict and the Hmong in Australia and Thailand” by Scott Andrew Downman (2004) Griffith University. View
this document at:

Matt Stewart of UW-La Crosse submits information about an upcoming conference.
Widening the Circle Teacher Education Symposium: "Helping teachers to teach Wisconsin Native American &
Hmong History, culture, critical pedagogy and how to authenticate materials and infuse curriculum" April 3 and
4th 2009 at UW-La Crosse. More information about this conference is available at this link:

Professor Kou Yang of California State University, Stanislaus has shared a new powerpoint presentation he
has put together related to Generation and Gender in Hmong Society.
The presentation can be viewed in 2 parts here:

Professor Kou Yang of California State University, Stanislaus has provided pictures for posting of the 2008
Hmong New Year in Fresno.

View the photos here:

The Center for Hmong Studies at Concordia University, St. Paul is pleased to announce its’ first publication,
The Impact of Globalization and Trans-Nationalism on the Hmong. This publication is a compilation of papers
presented at the First International Conference on Hmong Studies in 2006 by various Hmong Studies
scholars.   Please contact Tzy Lee Ya for ordering information. She can be reached at

The Research Center for Cultural Diversity and Community Renewal (CDCR), a joint project of UW-La Crosse,
UW-Eau Claire, UW-Stout and UW-Stevens Point has opened a resource center with Hmong-related resources
on the UW-La Crosse campus. The resource center’s webpage may be viewed at:


The Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center has published the online edition of
volume 9 of the Hmong Studies Journal. An internet-based journal, The Hmong Studies Journal is the only peer-
reviewed academic publication devoted to the scholarly discussion of Hmong history, Hmong culture, Hmong
people, and other facets of the Hmong experience in the U.S., Asia and around the world. The Hmong Studies
Journal has now published 11 online issues in 9 volumes with a total of 72 scholarly articles since 1996. Click
below for more information and links to Volume 9 of the Hmong Studies Journal.  


A new bibliographic guide to Hmong Studies research published between 2005-2008 is available for viewing at:


The U.S. Census Bureau released national-level Hmong data from the 2007 American Community Survey at
the end of August 2008. Hmong state estimates from this data source have recently been posted. View the new
data here:

For a tutorial about how to access Hmong census data online visit:


Doing research on a Hmong Studies research topic? More than 30 Comprehensive and frequently updated
online subject bibliographies of Hmong Studies works are available at the following link:

A newly created 2007-Present research bibliography is updated every few weeks with information about the
latest research publications in Hmong Studies, online links to text are included where applicable:


Volumes 4-8 of the Hmong Studies Journal are available for order in a physical, print format. For more info visit
the following link:


A growing library of links to full-text research articles and other documents related to Hmong Studies and
Southeast Asian American Studies is available at the following link:


A bibliography consisting of more than 600 annotations of Hmong Studies-related scholarly research works
published between 1996-2006 is available from The Scarecrow Press, a subsidiary of Rowman Littlefield
specializing in academic bibliographies and reference works. This volume represents the first Hmong
Studies annotated research bibliography published since the mid-1990s. To learn more about this work visit the
following webpage:

You can check to see if your local or university library has this bibliography yet at the following link:

If your library doesn't have it yet, please encourage them to get it for their collections.

In the Fall of 2007, the Asian American Press newspaper featured a short article about this work:


The Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center is partnering with Craig Rice to provide up-to-date content
related to community educational events, Hmong resources and Hmong Studies for the WWW Hmong
Homepage. Craig Rice co-founded the WWW Hmong Homepage in early 1994. The website was one of the first
to provide substantive educational resources related to Hmong-Americans and Hmong around the world. The
WWW Hmong Homepage is still one of the most heavily visited and linked educational websites related to the
Hmong. A recent update includes information about a newly available Hmong cookbook printed by the UW-
Extension in Eau Claire, WI. To view the WWW Hmong Homepage and learn about upcoming educational
events visit:


A moderated message board intended as a forum for information about existing and new
research resources in Hmong Studies is available at: