The Hmong in Thailand

(Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD)

Nakai, S. (2012). "Pig Domestication Processes: An Analysis of Varieties of Household Pig Reproduction
Control in a Hillside Village in Northern Thailand." Human Ecology, 40: 145-152.

Srithi, K. et al. (2012). "Medicinal plants used in Hmong women's healthcare in northern Thailand." Journal of
Ethnopharmacology, 139 (2012) 119-135.

Postert, C. (2010). “Moral Agency, Identity Crisis and Mental Health: An Anthropologist’s Plight and His
Hmong Ritual Healing.” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 34(1): 169-85.

Tapp, N. (2010). The Impossibility of Self: An Essay on the Hmong Diaspora. Comparative
Anthropological Studies in Society, Cosmology and Politics, Volume 6. Berlin: Lit Verlag.

Tapp, N. (2010). "Perspectives on Hmong Studies: Speech by Nicholas Tapp on Receiving the Eagle Award
at the Third International Conference on Hmong Studies, Concordia University, Saint Paul, April 10, 2010."
Hmong Studies Journal, 11: 1-12.

Evrard, O. and P. Leepreecha. (2009). “Monks, Monarchs, and Mountain Folks: Domestic
Tourism and Internal Colonialism in Northern Thailand.” Critique of Anthropology 29(3): 300-323.

Latt, S.S.W. (2009). “Ethnic Politics, Migrant Labour and Agrarian Transformation: A Case Study of
the Hmong and the Shan in a Royal Project in Northern Thailand.” Canada Research Chair in Asian Studies
Working Paper, Number 4, February 2009 – Universite de Montreal.

Nakai, S. (2009). “Analysis of Pig Consumption by Smallholders in a Hillside Swidden
Agriculture Society of Northern Thailand.” Human Ecology 37(Published Online 20 June 2009): 501-

P. Leepreecha. (2008). "Role of Media Technology in Reproducing Hmong Ethnic Identity."  
In D. McCaskill, P. Leepreecha and S. He, Eds. Living in a Globalized World: Ethnic Minorities in the Greater
Mekong Region. Bangkok: Mekong Press.

D. McCaskill. (2008). "Fix and Flux: the transformation of Hmong Culture and Identity." In D. McCaskill, P.
Leepreecha and S. He, Eds. Living in a Globalized World: Ethnic Minorities in the Greater Mekong Region.
Bangkok: Mekong Press.

D. McCaskill, P. Leepreecha and S. He (2008). "Globalization, Nationalism, Regionalism and Ethnic Minorities
in the Greater Mekong Subregion: A Comparative Analysis." In D. McCaskill, P. Leepreecha and S. He, Eds.
Living in a Globalized World: Ethnic Minorities in the Greater Mekong Region. Bangkok: Mekong Press.

Nakai, S. (2008). “Reproductive Performance Analysis of Native Pig Smallholders in the Hillside of Northern
Thailand.” Tropical Animal Health and Production 40: 561-566.

Nakai, S. (2008). “Decision-making on the Use of Diverse Combinations of Agricultural Products and Natural
Plants in Pig Feed: A Case Study of Native Pig Smallholders in Northern Thailand.” Tropical Animal Health
and Production 40: 201-208.

Oeltmann, J.E. et al. (2008). "Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Outbreak among US-bound Hmong Refugees,
Thailand, 2005." Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11): 1715-1721.

Vang, P. Zongrum, O., Sindhuphak, R., and N. Dusitsin. (2007). "Preliminary Study on Thalassemia Screening
and Genetic Counseling in Selective Hmong People in Saraburi Province, Thailand." Hmong Studies Journal
Vol 8, 2007

Johnson, T.P. (2007). “Enclothing Identity: A Hmong Girl’s Journey into the Politics of Identification in
Thailand.” Teacher’s College Record 109(7): 1637-1662.

Siriphon, A. (2006). “Local Knowledge, Dynamism and the Politics of Struggle: A Case Study of the Hmong in
Northern Thailand.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 37(1): 65-81.

Tomforde, M. (2006). The Hmong Mountains: Cultural Spatiality of the Hmong in Northern
Thailand. Hamburg: Lit Verlag.

Johnson, Tracy Pilar. (2005). The (im)possibilities of becoming: Hmong youth and the politics of schooling
and development in Thailand. PhD Dissertation, Columbia University.

Leepreecha, Prasit. (2004). "Ntoo Xeeb: Cultural Redefinition for Forest Conservation among the Hmong in
Thailand." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai,
Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 335-352.

Kundstadter, Peter. (2004). "Hmong Marriage Patterns in Thailand in Relation to Social Change." In Tapp, N.,
Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books,
pp. 375-420.

Symonds, Patricia V. (2004). "Following Hmong Cultural Pathways for the Prevention of HIV/AIDS: Notes from
the Field." In Tapp, N., Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai,
Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 353-374.

Johnson-Messenger, Tracy. (2003). "Contradictions in Learning how to be Thai: A Case Study of a Young
Hmong Woman." Hmong Studies Journal, 4:1-21

Tomforde, Maren. (2003). “The Global in the Local: Contested Resource-Use Systems of the Karen and
Hmong in Northern Thailand. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34(2): pp. 347-360.

Delang, Claudio O. (2002). “Deforestation in Northern Thailand: The result of Hmong Farming Practices or
Thai Development Strategies?” Society and Resources 15: 483-501.

Ishida, T; Takao, S; Settheetham-Ishida, W. and Tiwawech, D. (2002). “Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus
infection in rural ethnic populations of Northern Thailand.” Journal of Clinical Virology 24: 31-35.

Tungittiplakorn, Waranoot and Phillip Dearden. (2002). “Biodiversity Conservation and Cash Crop
Development in Northern Thailand.” In Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 2007-2025.

Leepreecha, P. (2001). Kinship and Identity among Hmong in Thailand. PhD Dissertation, University of

Cohen, E. (2000). The Commercialized Crafts of Thailand: Hill Tribes and Lowland Villages. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii. 316 pages.

Christian Culas. (2000). Origins of the Hmong in Laos and Siam in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth
Centuries. From Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples: Mountain Minorities in the Southeast Asian Massif,
ed. Jean Michaud. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. pp. 29-50.

Louisirirotchanakul, S. et. al. (2000). “No evidence of HTLV-I or HTLV-II infection among the Hmong people of
northern Thailand or injecting drug users in Bangkok.” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 23
(5): 441-442.

Peter Kundstadter. (2000). Changing Patterns of Economics among Hmong in Northern Thailand: 1960-1990.
From Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples: Mountain Minorities in the Southeast Asian Massif, ed. Jean
Michaud. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. pp. 167-194.

Cooper, Robert (Editor) (1998). The Hmong: A guide to traditional lifestyles . Singapore: Times Editions.

Freeman, M. (1998). A Golden Souvenir of the Hilltribes of Thailand. 2nd Edition. Bangkok: Asia Books.

Lewis P. and E. (1998). The Peoples of the Golden Triangle. First Paperback Edition.

Beyrer, C. et. al. (1997). “Widely varying HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among the ethnic minority
AIDS/HIV. 9(4): 427-439.

Funakawa, S. (1997). “Ecological study on the dynamics of soil organic matter and its related properties in
shifting cultivation systems of Northern Thailand.” SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION. 43(3): 681-693.

Buranasombati, Pises (1995). A Qualitative Study of Low Socioeconomic Status Students In A Predominantly
High Socioeconomic Status In Bangkok, Thailand (Bangkok Business College), PhD dissertation. Illinois State

Michaud, Jean (1995). Resistance Et Flexibilite: Le Changement Social Et Le Tourisme Dans Un Village
Hmong De Thailande (French Text, Tourism, Hmong, Thailand, Social Change), PhD dissertation. University
De Montreal (Canada).

Vang, Lue. (1995). A cultural interpretation of Thai Hmong: beliefs, traditions and values about education and
leadership . Ed.D., University of San Francisco.

Cha, Dia & Small, Cathy A. (1994). Policy lessons from Lao and Hmong women in Thai refugee camps. World
Development , 22(7), 1045-1059.

Renard, Ronald D. (1994). The monk, the Hmong, the forest, the cabbage, fire and water: incongruities in
northern Thailand opium replacement. Law & Society Review. 28(3):657-664.

Anderson, E.F. (1993). Plants and People of the Golden Triangle: Ethnobotany of the Hill Tribes of Northern
Thailand. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press.

Kunstadter, P. and others. (1993). “Demographic Variables in Fetal and Child Mortality: Hmong in Thailand.”
Social Science and Medicine 36: 1109-1120.

McKinnon J. and W. Bhruksasri. (1993). "Highland Populations in Northern Thailand." In Highlanders of
Thailand, McKinnon J. and W. Bhruksasri, eds. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. 36-44.

Boyes J. and S. Paraban. 1992. A Life Apart Viewed from the Hills. Bangkok: Silkworm Books.

Chantavanich, S. and others. (1992). The Lao Returnees in the Voluntary Repatriation Programme from
Thailand. Occasional Paper Series, no. 3. Bangkok: Indochinese Refugee Information Center, Institute of
Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University, 1992.

Grazer, W. and S. Lowman. (1992). "Hmong Refugees in Thailand: The Case Against Forced Resettlement."
Washington D.C.: United States Catholic Conference, Migration and Refugee Services.

Freeman, M. (1992). A Golden Souvenir of the Hilltribes of Thailand. Bangkok: Asia Books.

Vang, P. (1992). "White Paper on Forced Repatriation of Hmong Refugees from Thailand to Laos." Denver:
Lao Human Rights Council.

Bradley, D. and Others. (1991). Thai Hill Tribe Phrasebook: Lahu, Lisu, Karen, and other Hill Tribes.
Berkeley, CA: Lonely Planet.

Jilek, W.G. and L. Jilek-Aall. (1991). “The Mental Health Relevance of Traditional Medicine and Shamanism in
Refugee Camps of Northern Thailand.” Curare 13 no. 4: 217-224.

Kesmanee, C. (1991). “Highlanders, Intervention, and Adaptation: A Case Study of the Mong N’jua (Moob
Ntsuab) Village of Pattana.” Master’s Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, 1991.

Robinson, W.C. (1991). "Laotian Refugees in Thailand: The Thai and U.S. Response, 1975-1988." In Laos:
Beyond the Revolution, edited by J.J. Zasloff and L. Unger, 215-240. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Lyman, T. A. (1990). “The Mong (Green Miao) and Their Language: A Brief Compendium.” The Journal of the
Siam Society 78: 63-65.

Podhisita, C., P. Kunstadter, and S.L. Kunstadter. (1990). “Evidence for Early Fertility Transition Among the
Hmong in Northern Thailand.” Journal of Population and Social Studies. 2: 137-155.

Salmon, S. (1990). Transition from Refugee to Villager: An Experience with Hilltribes in Thailand." In Back to a
Future? Voluntary Repatriation of Indochinese Refugees and Displaced Persons in Thailand, ed. by L.
Standley, 111-131. Bangkok: Committee for the Coordination of Services to Displaced Persons in Thailand.

Tapp, N. (1990). “Squatters or Refugees: Development and the Hmong.” In Ethnic Groups Across National
Boundaries in Mainland Southeast Asia, edited by G. Wijeyewardene, 149-172. Singapore, Institute of
Southeast Asian Studies.

Goldrick, R. (1989). Chiang Mai and the Hilltribes. Bangkok: Sangdad Publishing.

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. (1989). "Forced Back and Forgotten: The Human Rights of Laotian
Asylum Seekers in Thailand." New York: Lawyers Committee for Human Rights.

McKinnon J. and B. Vienne, Eds. (1989). Hill Tribes Today: Problems in Change. Bangkok: White Lotus-

Tapp, N. (1989). Sovereignty and Rebellion: The White Hmong of Northern Thailand. Singapore: Oxford
University Press.

Eudey, A. (1988). “Hmong Relocated in Northern Thailand.” Cultural Survival Quarterly, 12, no. 1. Fuller, J.W.
(1988). Topic and Comment in Hmong. Bloomington, IN Indiana University Linguistics Club.

Renard, R.D. et al. (1988). Changes in the Northern Thai Hills: An Examination of the Impact of Hill Tribe
Development Work, 1957-1987, Research Report, no. 42. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Research and Development

Sricharatchanya, P. (1988). "Body Smugglers: Security Forces Crackdown on Thai-Lao Refugee Racket." Far
Eastern Economic Review, 11 February 1988, 26.

Tapp, N. (1988). “Geomancy and Development: The Case of the White Hmong of North Thailand.” Ethnos 53:

Wongspraset, S. (1988). “Impact of the Dhammacarik Bhikkus’ Programme on the Hill Tribes of Thailand.” In
Ethnic Conflict in Buddhist Societies: Sri Lanka, Thailand and Burma, edited by K.M. De Silva, and others,
126-137. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1988.

Radley, H. (1986). Economic Marginalization and the Ethnic Consciousness of Green Hmong in Northern
Thailand. PhD Dissertation, Oxford University.

Tapp, N. (1986). “Buddhism and the Hmong: A Case Study in Social Adjustment.” Journal of Developing
Societies 2 (April 1986): 68-88.

Tapp, N. (1986). “Geomancy as an Aspect of Upland-Lowland Relationships.” In the Hmong in Transition,
edited by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 87-95.

Tapp, N. (1986). The Hmong People of Thailand: Opium People of the Golden Triangle. Indigenous Peoples
and Development Series Report No. 4. London, England and Cambridge, MA: Anti-Slavery Society and
Cultural Survival, Inc.

Lee, G.Y. (1986). "Minority Politics in Thailand: A Hmong Perspective." Paper eprinted at www.hmongnet.
org/hmong-au/ website. 9 p.

Lee, G.Y. (1986). "Tribal Socio-economic Change: Dream and Reality." Paper reprinted at www.hmongnet.
org/hmong-au/ website. 7 p.

Cohen, P.T. (1985). “Opium and the Karen. A Study of Indebtedness in Northern Thailand.” Journal of
Southeast Asian Studies 15(March 1985): 150-65.

Kundstadter, P. (1985). “Health of Hmong in Thailand: Risk Factors, Morbidity and Mortality in Comparison
with other Ethnic Groups.” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 9 (December 1985): 329-351.

Hinton, P. (1983). “Why the Karen Do Not Grow Opium: Competition and Contradiction in the Highlands of
North Thailand.” Ethnology 22 (January 1983): 1-16.

Kunstadter, P. (1983). “Cultural Ideals, Socioeconomic Change, and Household Composition: Karen Lua’,
Hmong and Thai in Northwestern Thailand.” In Households: Comparative and Historical Studies of the
Domestic Group, edited by R. Mcc Netting, RR. Wilk, and E.J. Arnould, 299-329. Berkeley and Los Angeles:
University of California Press, 1984.

Cooper, Robert G. (1979). The Yao Jua Relationship: Patterns of Affinal Alliance and Residence Among the
Hmong of Northern Thailand. Ethnology 28:173-181.

Kunstadter, Peter (1979). Hmong (Meo) Highlander Merchants in Lowland Thai Markets: Spontaneous
Development of Highland-Lowland Interactions. Paper read at the Workshop on Agro-Forestry for Rural
Communities, University of Chiangmai, Thailand, 12-16 November, 1979.

Bertrais, Yves (1978). The Traditional Marriage Among the White Hmong of Thailand and Laos. Chiang Mai,
Thailand: Hmong Center.

Cooper, Robert G. (1978) (a). Dynamic Tension: Symbiosis and Contradiction in Hmong Social Relations. In
The New Economic Anthropology, John Clammer, ed. pp. 138-175. London: MacMillan Press.

Cooper, Robert G. (1978) (b). Unity and Division in Hmong Social Categories in Thailand. In Studies in
ASEAN Sociology, Peter Chen and Hans-Dieter Evers, eds. pp. 297-320. Singapore: Chopmen Enterprises.

Keen, F. G. B. (1978). Ecological Relationships in a Hmong (Meo) Economy. In Farmers in the Forest:
Economic Development and Marginal Agriculture in Northern Thailand, Peter Kunstadter, E. C. Champan, S.
Sakhasi, eds. pp. 210-221. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press.

Dhamaraso Bhikkhu and Virojano Bhikkhu (1977). The Historical Background and Tradition of the Meo.
Bangkok: Suksa Samphan.

Kauffmann, Hans E. (1977). Review of The Religion of the Hmong Njua by Nusit Chindarsi. Journal of the
Siam Society 65(1):390-392.

Andrianoff, David I. (1976). Hmong Retribalization. Unpub M.A. Thesis, SUNY Binghamton.

Chindarsi, Nusit (1976). The Religion of the Hmong Njua. Bangkok: The Siam Society. [299.5919 N942]

Cooper, Robert G. (1976). Social Change Among Hmong Opium Producers of Northwest Thailand.
Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hull.

Geddes, William R. (1976). Migrants of the Mountains: The Cultural Ecology of the Blue Miao (Hmong Njua) of
Thailand. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [301.9593 G267]

Lyman, Thomas A. (1976). Ethno-Zoology of the Green Miao (Mong Njua) of Naan Province, Northern
Thailand. Napa, CA: Graphics Department, Napa College.

Gua, Bo (1975). Opium, Bombs and Trees: The Future of the H’mong Tribesmen in Northern Thailand.
Journal of Contemporary Asia 5:70-81.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1975). Ethnological Journey: An account of Travels in Northern Thailand in Quest of the
Miao (Meo) Tribe. Napa, CA: Graphics Department, Napa College.

Adams, Monni (1974). Dress and Design in Highland Southeast Asia: The Hmong (Miao) and the Yao. Textile
Museum Journal 4(1):51-66.

Clark, R. B. (1973). Meo: Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and Burma. In Peoples of the Earth, pp. 92-97. Verona:
Danbury Press, Arnaldo Mondadori.

Marks, Thomas A. (1973). The Meo Hill Tribe Problem in North Thailand. Asian Survey 13:929-944.

Binney, George A. (1971) The Social and Economic Organization of Two White Meo Communities in Northern
Thailand. Washington, D.C.: Wildlife Management Inst. National Technical Information Service, order no. AD
882 88L.

Bumke, Peter J. (1971). Die Miao: Sozialgeschichte und politische organization einer segmentaren
Gesellshaft und die Auwirkungen der Thailandischen Minderheitenpolitik. Wiesbaden: In Kommission bei Otto

Buhler, Alfred (1972). Hanfverarbeitung und Batik bei den Meau in Nordthailand. Ethnologishe Zeitschrift
Zurich 1, 1972, pp. 61-81. Bern: Verlag Herbert Lang.

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PAM #550-107, pp. 537-687. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Offices.

Geddes, William R. (1970). Opium and the Miao: A Study in Ecological Adjustment. Oceania 41(1):1-11.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1970). The “Mong” of Thailand vs. The “Hmong” of Laos, A Preliminary Research Sketch.
Asia Aakhanee: Southeast Asian Survey 2(3):26-28, March 1970.

Manndorff, Hans (1970). Beobachtungen uber das Neujahrsfest (Pe Tschou) der Miao Nordthailands, ihren
Kulturheros You-Schou und die zwolf Familien-Namen Gruppen (Seng). Ethnologische Zeitschrift Zurich,
Bern, vol 1: 75-83.

Deaton, Brady, and Thomas A. Lyman (1969). Types of Miao Hill-Rice. Asia Aakhanee: Southeast Asian
Survey 1(2):36-38.

Deaton, Brady, and Thomas A. Lyman (1969). Green Miao (Meo) Agricultural Terms. Asia Aakhanee:
Southeast Asian Survey 1(3):42-47.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1969). Miao (Meo) Slash-and-Burn Agriculture. Journal d’Agriculture tropicale et de
Botanique appliguee 16(6,7,8)251-283.

Military Research and Development Center (1969). Meo Handbook. Bangkok, Thailand: Joint Thai-U.S.
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Lyman, Thomas A. (1968). Green Miao (Meo) Spirit-Ceremonies. Ethnologica (n.f.) 4:1-28.

Keen, F. G. B. (1966). The Meo of North-West Thailand. Wellington, New Zealand: R. E. Owen, Government
Printer. (M.A. Thesis)

Bouapha, Thongsar (1963). The Story of the Meo People. Bill Taylor, ed. Vientiane: US AID-RDD-IVS-LAOS.

Saihoo, Patya (1963). The Hill Tribes of Northern Thailand and the Opium Problem Bulletin on Narcotics 15(2):

Lyman, Thomas A. (1962). The Mong Njua: A Meo (Miao) Tribe of Northern Thailand. Notes on general
characteristics. (unpublished)

Lyman, Thomas A. (1962). The Weaving Technique of the Green Miao. Ethnos 27:35-39.

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