Hmong Traditional Healing and Folk Medicine
Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD
Gerdner, L.A. (2012). "Shamanism: Indications and Use by Older Hmong Americans with Chronic Illness."
Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13(1).
Molinar, R.H. (2012). “Indigenous Asian Specialty Vegetables in the Central Valley of California. “ Hortscience
Srithi, K. et al. (2012). "Medicinal plants used in Hmong women's healthcare in northern Thailand." Journal of
Ethnopharmacology, 139 (2012) 119-135.
Capps, L. (2011). "Ua Neeb Khu : A Hmong American Healing Ceremony." Journal of Holistic Nursing. 29(2): 98-
Delang, Claudio O. (2005). “The market for medicinal plants in SAPA and Hanoi, Vietnam.” Economic Botany 59
(4): 377-385 WIN 2005
Cha, Dia. (2003). Hmong American Concepts of Health, Healing, and Conventional Medicine. New York:
Corlett, Jan L., Dean, Ellen A., and Louis E. Grivetti. (2003). “Hmong Gardens: Botanical Diversity in an Urban
Setting.” Economic Botany 57(3):365-379.
Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A., Vawter, Dorothy .E., Xiong, Phua, Babbitt, Barbara and Mary M. Solberg. (Editors).
(2003). Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case Stories of Hmong Families and Western Providers. Nashville:
Vanderbilt University Press.
Jintrawet, Usanee and Harrigan, Rosanne C. (2003). “Beliefs of Mothers in Asian Countries and among Hmong in
the United States about the Causes, Treatments and Outcomes of Acute Illnesses: An Integrated Review of the
Literature.” Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing 26:77-88.
Numrich, Charles; Plotnikoff, Gregory; Yang, Deu; Wu Yongyuan Chu; and Phua Xiong. (2003). “Enhanced
Listening Skills: Gifts from the Hmong.” The Journal of Clinical Ethics 13(4): 337-343.
Corlett, JL; Clegg, MS; Keen, CL; and Grivetti, LE (2002). “Mineral content of culinary and medicinal plants
cultivated by Hmong refugees living in Sacramento, California.” International Journal of Food Sciences and
Nutrition 53(2): 117-128.
Xiong, G. (2001). Knowledge, utilization, and perceptions of shamanism and Western counseling or
psychotherapy by the various Hmong subgenerational groups and religious beliefs. MA Thesis, California State
Cha, D. (2000). Hmong American Concepts of Health, Healing, and Illness and Their Experience with
Conventional Medicine. PhD Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder.
Cooper, Robert (Editor) (1998). The Hmong: A guide to traditional lifestyles . Singapore: Times Editions.
Vang, See J. (1998). Hmong Perception and Behaviors Regarding Shamanic Practice and Western Medicine. M.
S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.
Warner, M.E. and M. Mochel. (1998). “The Hmong and Health Care in Merced, California.”
Hmong Studies Journal 2(2):1-21.
Lemoine, J. and Eisenbruch, M. (1997). “The practice of the power of healing by the Hmong shamans and the
cambodian traditional healers of Indochina.” Homme. 37 (144): 69-103.
Nuttall, P. & Flores, F.C. (1997). Hmong healing practices used for common childhood illnesses. Pediatric
Nursing, 23(3), 247-251.
Lundberg, Kirstin V. (1996). Becoming a Hmong herb lady. M.A. thesis, California State University, Chico.
Moua, James L. (1996). The uses of herb medicine in health care practices of Hmong refugees, and policy
implications in Merced County, California. M.A. thesis, California State University, Stanislaus.
Capps, Lisa L. (1994). Change and continuity in the medical culture of the Hmong in Kansas City. Medical
Anthropology Quarterly (New Series) , 8(2), 161-177.
Ensign, John. (1994). Traditional healing in the Hmong refugee community of the California Central Valley . Ph.D.,
California School of Professional Psychology.
Prior. S. (1994). The Significance of Gardening on the Psychological Adjustment of the Hmong Elderly. Master’s
Thesis, San Diego State University.
Anderson, E.F. (1993). Plants and People of the Golden Triangle: Ethnobotany of the Hill Tribes of Northern
Thailand. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press.
Bliatout, B. (1991). “Hmong Healing Practictioners.” Hmong Forum 2: 58-66.
Smith, R.M. and L.A. Nelson. (1991). “Hmong Folk Remedies: Limited Acetylation of Opium by Aspirin and
Acetaminophen.” Journal of Forensic Sciences 36: 280-87.
Yang, C-W. (1991). “ A Further Discussion of Miao Medicine.” Translated by I. Bain. Hmong Forum 2: 67-76.
Bliatout, B. (1990). "Hmong Beliefs About Health and Illness." Hmong Forum, 1:40-45.
Brainerd J. and A. Zaharlick. (1989). “Changing Health Beliefs and Behaviors of Resettled Laotian Refugees:
Ethnic Variation in Adaptation.” Social Science and Medicine 29: 845-852.
Spring, M.A. (1989). “Enthopharmacologic Analysis of Medicinal Plants Used by Laotian Hmong Refugees in
Minnesota.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 26 (June 1989): 65-91.
Cheon-Klessig, Y. et al. (1988). “Folk Medicine in the Health Practice of Hmong Refugees.” Western Journal of
Nursing Research 10 (October 1988): 647-660.
Culhane-Pera, K. (1988). "Hmong Traditional Medicine and Shamanism." Paper presented to the American
Refugee Committee, February 23, 1988.
Tapp, N. (1988). “Geomancy and Development: The Case of the White Hmong of North Thailand.” Ethnos 53:
Waller, S. (1988). “Hmong Shamans in a County Mental Health Setting: A Bicultural Model for Healing Laotian
Mountain People.” In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate
Modes of Healing, ed. R.I. Heinze, 52-63. Berkeley, Independent Scholars of Asia, 1988.
Westermeyer, J. (1988). Folk Medicine in Laos: A Comparison Between Two Ethnic Groups.” Social Science and
Medicine 27: 769-778.
Brett, J.A. (1987). “A Contribution to Hmong Medical Ethnobotany.” Master’s Thesis, University of Colorado at
Deinard, A.S. and T. Dunnigan. (1987). “Hmong Health Care - Reflections on a Six-Year Experience.”
International Migration Review 21 (Fall 1987): 857-865.
Pake, C.V. (1987). “Medicinal Ethnobotany of Hmong Refugees in Thailand.” Journal of Ethnobiology 7 (Summer
Rubio, E.L. et al. (1987). “Hmong Opiate Folk Remedy Toxicity in Three Infants.” Veterinary and Human
Toxicology 29: 323-325.
Ekins, B.R., Rubio, E.L., Carson, R.S., Singh, P., Dowis, J., and D. Woods (1986). “Hmong Opiate Folk Remedy
Toxicity in Two Infants.” Veterinary and Human Toxicology 28 (October 1986): 481.
Lemoine, J. (1986). “Shamanism in the Context of Hmong Resettlement.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L.
Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 337-48.
Pake, C.E. (1986). “Herbal Medicines Used by Hmong Refugees in Thailand.” Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota, Public Health Nursing Program, School of Public Health.
Thao, X. (1986). “Hmong Perception of Illness and Traditional Ways in Healing.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed.
by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing and A.S. Deinard, 365-78.
Willcox, D. (1986). Hmong Folklife. Hmong Natural Association of North Carolina.
Vang, K., Vang, H.T., Simmons, C., Tashima, N., and D.T. Ramirez. (1985). Hmong Concepts of Illness and
Healing with a Hmong/English Glossary. Prepared for the Office of Refugee Resettlement, U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services, Washington D.C. Fresno, CA: Nationalities Service of Central California.
Libby, M.R. Sr. (1984). “The Self Care Practices of the Hmong Hilltribe Refugees from Laos.” Master’s Thesis,
University of Kansas.
Thao, X. (1984). “Southeast Asian Refugees of Rhode Island: The Hmong Perception of Illness.” Rhode Island
Medical Journal 67 (July 1984): 323-30.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. (1983). “Leads from the MMWR: Folk Remedy-
Associated Lead Poisoning in Hmong Children.” 250 (December 16, 1983): 3149-50.
Grandstaff, Terry B. (1979). The Hmong, Opium and the Haw: Speculations on the Origin of their Association.
Journal of the Siam Society 67(2): 70-79.
Chindarsi, Nusit (1976). The Religion of the Hmong Njua. Bangkok: The Siam Society. [299.5919 N942]
Geddes, William R. (1976). Migrants of the Mountains: The Cultural Ecology of the Blue Miao (Hmong Njua) of
Thailand. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [301.9593 G267]
Lemoine, Jacques (1972). Un village Hmong Vert du haut Laos. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique. [301.9594 L544]