Mental Health Issues Affecting Hmong

Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD

Collier, A.F., Munger, M. and Y.K. Moua. (2012). Hmong Mental Health Needs Assessment: A Community-Based
Partnership in a Small Mid-Western Community. American Journal of Community Psychology, 49: 73-86.

Im, H. (2012). A Social Ecology of Stress and Coping among Homeless Refugee Families. PhD Dissertation,
University of Minnesota.

Lee, S and J. Chang. (2012). Mental Health Status of the Hmong Americans in 2011: Three Decades Revisited.
Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation, 11:1, 55-70.


Lee, S. and J. Chang. (2012). "Revisiting 37 Years Later: A Brief Summary of Existing Sources Related to
Hmong and their Mental Health Status." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13(2).

Xiong, G. (2010). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Hmong Refugees: A Client’s Self-rating of
Helpfulness, Psy.D. Dissertation, Alliant International University, Fresno.

Fjuii, D. and A.K. Vang. (2010). “Neuropsychology of Hmong Americans.” In The
neuropsychology of Asian Americans, edited  by Daryl Fujii, 71-88. New York: Taylor and Francis.

Schuster, R. (2010). Examining Treatment Outcomes for Hmong American Youth with Delinquency
Problems. PhD Dissertation, Indiana University.

Vang, K.M. (2010). Mental Health: Identifying Barriers to Hmong Students’ Use of Mental Health
Services. PhD Dissertation, California State University, Fresno.

Miller, M.J. and R.M. Lee. (2009). “Factorial Invariance of the Asian American Family Conflicts
Scale Across Ethnicity, Generational Status, Sex, and Nationality.” Measurement and Evaluation in
Counseling and Development 42(3): 179-196.

Vang, C. (2009). The Relationship Among Acculturation, Cultural Adjustment Difficulties, and
Psychological Symptoms Among Hmong Americans. PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Detzner, D.F., A.R. Senyurekli and Z.B. Xiong. (2008). "Escape from Harm’s Way: The Experiences of Southeast
Asian Elders and their Families."Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-30.

Gerdner, L.A. (2008). "Translating Research Findings Into a Hmong American Children’s Book to Promote
Understanding of Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease." Hmong Studies Journal, Volume 9: 1-21.

Vang, P.D. (2007). Southeast Asian Mental Health from the Perspective of the Bicultural Provider. PhD Dissertation,
University of Minnesota.

Yang, P. (2007). Acculturation and Depression in the Hmong Community. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University,
Long Beach.

Chentsova-Dutton, Y.E. and Tsai, J.L. (2007). “Gender differences in emotional response among European
Americans and Hmong Americans.” Cognition & Emotion 21(1): 162-181.

Danner, C.C. Robinson, B.E., Striepe, M.I. and P.F. Yang Rhodes. (2007).
“Running from the Demon: Culturally Specific Group Therapy for Depressed Hmong Women in a
Family Medicine Residency Clinic.” Women and Therapy 30(1/2): 151-176.

Sechrist, Z.S. (2007). Perception and Knowledge of Hmong High School Students Regarding
Mental Health. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Lee, E.S. (2006). Hmong Women’s Issues: Identity and Mental Health. PhD Dissertation,
North Carolina State University.

Adler, S.R. (2006). “Refugee Stress and Folk Belief: Hmong Sudden Deaths.” In Elizabeth Dixon Whitaker, Ed. Health
and Healing in Comparative Perspective. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Gensheimer, L. (2006). "Learning from the experiences of Hmong mental health providers." Hmong Studies Journal,
Vol 7, 2006

Gensheimer, Linda C.. (2005). Hmong Mental Health Providers: A Hermeneutic Approach to Understanding Their
Experience. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Gerdner, L.A, Xiong, S.V., and D. Cha. (2006). “Chronic Confusion and Memory Impairment in Hmong Elders.”
Journal of Gerontological Nursing 32(3): 23-30.

Gerdner, L.A., Xiong X.X., and D. Yang (2006). “Working with Hmong American Families.” In G. Yeo and D. Gallagher-
Thompson (Eds). Ethnicity and the Dementias, 2nd Edition. Bristo:, PA: Taylor and Francis CRC Press, pp. 209-230.

Yang, J. (2006). The Relationship Between Contextual Factors of Psychological Distress with Emotional Eating and
Body Weight in Hmong and Hmong American College Populations, PhD Dissertation, Alliant International University,
Fresno.

Gerdner, L, Tripp-Reimer, T, Yang, D (2005). ”Perception and care of elders with dementia in the Hmong American
community.”INT PSYCHOGERIATR 17: 163-164 Suppl. 2 2005

Su, Jenny, Richard M. Lee, and Shary Vang. (2005). “Intergenerational Family Conflict and Coping Among Hmong-
American College Students.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 52(4): 482-489.

Xiong, D.D. (2005). The Relationship between Parental and Adolescent Acculturation and Hmong Adolescent
Psychological Well-Being, PhD Dissertation, Alliant International University, San Diego.

Gwendolyn F. Foss, Andjukenda W. Chantal and Simone Hendrickson. (2004). “Maternal Depression and Anxiety
and Infant Development: A Comparison of Foreign-Born and Native-American Mothers.” Public Health Nursing 21(3):
237-246.

Goh, M., Dunnigan, T., and K.M. Schuchman. (2004). “Bias in Counseling Hmong Clients with Limited English
Proficiency.” The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination: Ethnicity and Multiracial Identity, Vol. 2, p. 109-136.

Anthony W. Tatman. (2004). “Hmong History, Culture, and Acculturation: Implications for Counseling the Hmong.”
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development 32(4): 222-233.

Bliatout, Bruce T. (2003). "Social and Spiritual Explanations of Depression and Nightmares." In Healing by Heart:
Clinical and Ethical Case Studies of Hmong Families and Western Providers, Editors: Culhane-Pera, K.A., Vawter, D.
E. et.al. pp. 209-215.

Vang Leng Mouanoutoua. (2003). "Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Prevailing Causes and
Therapeutic Strategies with Hmong Clients." In Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case Studies of Hmong Families
and Western Providers, Editors: Culhane-Pera, K.A., Vawter, D.E. et.al. pp. 216-221.

Westermeyer, Joseph. (2003). "Cultural Explanations of Psychosis." In Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case
Studies of Hmong Families and Western Providers, Editors: Culhane-Pera, K.A., Vawter, D.E. et.al. pp. 241-250.

Vang, Thomas. (2003). "Integrating Hmong and Western Approaches to Spiritual Illnesses." In Healing by Heart:
Clinical and Ethical Case Studies of Hmong Families and Western Providers, Editors: Culhane-Pera, K.A., Vawter, D.
E. et.al. pp. 251-254.

Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A., Vawter, Dorothy .E., Xiong, Phua, Babbitt, Barbara and Mary M. Solberg. (Editors).
(2003). Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case Stories of Hmong Families and Western Providers. Nashville:
Vanderbilt University Press.

Sandage, Steven J., Hill, Peter C., and Henry C. Vang. (2003). “Toward a Multicultural Positive Psychology:
Indigenous Forgiveness and Hmong Culture.” The Counseling Psychologist 31(5): 564-592.

Schuchman, K.M. (2002). “Hmong Mental Health in Ramsey County: Recommendations to the Legislature.” A
“Toward Better Mental Health: A Community Approach” report, sponsored by the Hmong Mental Health Providers
Network and the Council on Asian Pacific Minnesotans.

Xiong, G. (2001). Knowledge, utilization, and perceptions of shamanism and Western counseling or psychotherapy
by the various Hmong subgenerational groups and religious beliefs. MA Thesis, California State University, Fresno.

Ying, YW. (2001). “Psychotherapy with traumatized Southeast Asian refugees.” Clinical Social Work Journal. 29(1):
65-78.

AU: Fatemi, SH Kroll, JL Stary, JM TI: Altered levels of Reelin and its isoforms in schizophrenia and mood disorders
(study includes Hmong-American patients) SO: NEUROREPORT BP: 3209 EP: 3215 PG: 7 PY: 2001 PD: OCT 29
VL: 12 IS: 15

Cha, D. (2000). Hmong American Concepts of Health, Healing, and Illness and Their Experience with Conventional
Medicine. PhD Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder.

Vang, A.K. (2000). Locus of Control and Family Support: Predictors of Life Satisfaction Among Hmong Women. PhD
Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology.

Eberhard, Susie Jane (1999). Family and parent experiences in welfare-to-work transition: Psychological, social and
disability factors, PhD dissertation. The University of Wisconsin – Madison.

Olson, M.C. (1999). "'The heart still beat, but the brain doesn't answer:' Perception and experience of old-age
dementia in the Milwaukee Hmong community." Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 20(1), 85-95.

Fang, B.K. (1998). Acculturation as a Predictor of Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help in the
Hmong Community. PhD Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno Campus.

Foss, Gwendolyn F. (1998). Relationships between posttraumatic stress, acculturation, and maternal sensitivity in
Vietnamese and Hmong mothers. D.N.Sc. dissertation, University of San Diego.

Bennett, Jane A. ; Detzner, Daniel F. (1997). Loneliness in cultural context, A look at the life history narratives of
older Southeast Asian refugee women. In A. Lieblich ; R. Josselson (Eds.), The Narrative Study of Lives (Vol. 5, pp.
113-146). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Giancola, James Thomas (1997). The Rorschach and the Hmong refugee population: A comparative analysis, PhD
dissertation. California School of Professional Psychology – Fresno.

Her, Mymee (Mee) (1997). A construct validity study of the Values Questionnaire using two divergent, PhD
dissertation. California School of Professional Psychology – Fresno.

Nicholson, B.L. (1997). “The influence of pre-emigration and postemigration stressors on mental health: A study of
Southeast Asian refugees.” Social Work Research. 21(1): 19-31.

Ying, Y.W. et. al. (1997). “Psychological dysfunction in Southeast Asian refugees as mediated by sense of
coherence.” American Journal of Community Psychology. 25(6): 839-859.

Chung, Rita Chi-Ying; Bemak, Fred (1996). The effects of welfare status on psychological distress among Southeast
Asian refugees. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. 184(6): 346-353.

Duong Tran, Quang, Lee, Serge & Khoi, Sokley. (1996). Ethnic and gender differences in parental expectations and
life stress. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 13(6):515-526.

Gurung, Carolyn Ruth (1996). The reported symptoms of depression by Hmong refugee women. M.S. thesis,
University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh.

Parker, Martha K. (1996). Loss in the lives of Southeast Asian elders. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Vang, Chou. (1996). The sources and effects of stress on mental health problems among Hmong adults in two west-
central Wisconsin cities. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Vang, Say Mao. (1996). A 1995 survey of Hmong veterans of [the] Vietnam War to determine the extent of war
related physical and psychological problems. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Vang, Thomas Moxa. (1996). Assessment of the perceptions, expectations, and utilizations of outpatient mental
health counseling services by Hmong American community workers. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Velasco, Joyce D. (1996). Exploration of employment possibilities for Hmong women with psychiatric disorders. The
Journal of Rehabilitation 62(4): 33.

Adler, Shelley R. (1995). "Refugee stress and folk belief: Hmong sudden deaths." Social Science and Medicine, 40
(12), 1623-1629.

Girouard, Laurice Annette. (1995). An exploratory study of resilience among Hmong refugees: a project based upon
an independent investigation . M.S. thesis, Smith College School for Social Work.

Mouanoutoua, V.L. and L.G. Brown. (1995). “Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, Hmong Version: A Screening
Instrument for Psychological Distress.” Journal of Personality Assessment 64 (April 1995): 376-383.

Wu, Christine (1995). The Efficacy Of A Behavioral Technique In The Treatment Of Noncompliance With An Asian
Child And His Parent, PSYD dissertation. California School of Professional Psychology – Fresno.

Adler, S.R. (1994). “Ethnomedical Pathogenesis and Hmong Immigrants’ Sudden Nocturnal Deaths.” Culture,
Medicine and Psychiatry 18: 23-59.

Lee, Serge Chia. (1994). Stress, social support systems, and psychosocial well-being of Hmong refugee adults. Ph.
D. thesis, University of Washington.

Vang, Blong Ngaloo. (1994). Causes of depression within the Minnesota Hmong community. M.S. thesis, University of
Wisconsin, Stout.

White, Emma Tao (1994). Criterion validity and sensitivity of the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory with refugee
adolescents. Ph.D. thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.

Dunnigan, T., McNall, M., & J.T. Mortimer. (1993). “The Problem of Metaphorical Nonequivalence in Cross-Cultural
Survey Research: Comparing the Mental Health Statuses of Hmong Refugee and General Population Adolescents.”
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 24(3): 344-365.

Pease, J. (1993). Somatic Complaints and Depression in Hmong Adults. Master’s Thesis, California State University,
Fresno.

Hallberg, G.R. (1992). The Hiskey-Nebraska Test Of Learning Aptitude As An Instrument In The Psychoeducational
Assessment Of A Referred Population Of Limited English Proficient Students (Intelligence Testing), PhD dissertation.
The Union Institute.

Sakulnamarka, D. (1992). Life Satisfaction of Middle-Generation Hmong Husbands and Wives. PhD Dissertation,
University of Minnesota.

Sibila, W.W. (1992). A Cross-Cultural Study Evaluating the Use of the Rorshach for the Assessment of Depression in
Hmong Refugees. PhD Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.

Tan, Cheribeth Uy (1992). Demographic And Psycho-Social Predictors Of Dependency On Public Assistance Among
Southeast Asian And Eastern European Refugees, MA dissertation. Michigan State University.

Adler S.R. (1991). “Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome Among Hmong Immigrants: Examining the Role
of the ‘Nightmare’.” Journal of American Folklore 104 (Winter 1991): 54-71.

Adler, S.R. (1991). The Role Of The Nightmare In Hmong Sudden Unexpected Nocturnal Death Syndrome: A
Folkloristic Study Of Belief And Health, PhD dissertation. University of California – Los Angeles.

Mouanoutoua, V.L. and others. (1991). “A Hmong Adaptation of the Beck Depression Inventory.” Journal of
Personality Assessment 57 (October 1991): 309-322.

Mulder, P.L. (1991). An Investigation of the Effects of the Level of Acculturation on the Performance of Hmong Adult
Refugees on Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices and Bender-Gestalt Visual/Motor Test. PhD Dissertation,
California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno.

Ostergren, J.C. (1991). Relationships Among English Performance, Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Depression for Hmong
Students. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Bliatout, B. (1990). "Hmong Beliefs About Health and Illness." Hmong Forum, 1:40-45.

Cerhan, J.U. (1990). “The Hmong in the United States: An Overview for Mental Health Professionals.” Journal of
Counseling and Development 69 (September-October 1990): 88-92.

Schriever, S.H. (1990). “Comparison of Beliefs and Practices of Ethnic Viet and Lao Hmong Concerning Illness,
Healing, Death, and Mourning: Implications for Hospice Care with Refugees in Canada.” Journal of Palliative Care 6:
42-49.

Westermeyer, J. (1990). “Psychiatric Services for Refugee Children: An Overview.” In Refugee Children: Theory,
Research, and Services, ed. F.L Ahearn and J.L. Athey, 127-162. Baltimore: John Hopkins.

Westermeyer, J., Callies, A., and J. Neider. (1990). “Welfare Status and Psychosocial Adjustment Among 100 Hmong
Refugees.” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 178: 300-306.

Frances, A. and J. Kroll. (1989). “Ongoing Treatment of a Hmong Widow Who Suffers From Pain and Depression.”
Hospital and Community Psychiatry 40 (July 1989): 691-693.

Mouanoutoua, V.L. (1989). Validity and Reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory Adapted Hmong Version. Master’
s Thesis, California State University, Fresno.

Westermeyer, J. (1989). “Delusions of Fatal Contagion Among Refugee Patients.” Psychosomatics 30 : 374-382.

Westermeyer, J. (1989). “Paranoid Symptoms and Disorders Among 100 Hmong Refugees: A Longitudinal Study.”
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 80: 47-59.

Westermeyer, J. (1989). “Somatization Among Refugees: An Epidemiological Study.” Psychosomatics 30: 34-43.

Westermeyer, J., L. Schaberg, and S. Nugent. (1989). “Anxiety Symptoms in Hmong Refugees 1.5 Years After
Migration.” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 183: 342-344.

Westermeyer, J., Neider, J. and A. Callies. (1989). “Psychosocial Adjustment of Hmong Refugees During their First
Decade in the United States: A Longitudinal Study.” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 177: 132-139.

Hirayama, K.K. and H. Hirayama. (1988). “Stress, Social Supports and Adaptational Patterns in Hmong Refugee
Families.” Amerasia Journal 14 (Winter 1988): 93-108.

Irby, C.C. and E.M. Pon (1988). “Confronting New Mountains: Mental Health Problems Among Male Hmong and Mien
Refugees.” AmerAsia Journal 14 (Winter 1988): 109-118.

Westermeyer, J. (1988). “A Matched Pairs Study of Depression Among Hmong Refugees With Particular Reference
to Predisposing Factors and Treatment Outcome.” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatry Epidemiology 23: 64-71.

Westermeyer, J. (1988). “DSM-III Psychiatric Disorders Among Hmong Refugees in the United States: A Point
Prevalance Study.” American Journal of Psychiatry 145: 197-202.

Munger, R.G. (1987). “Sudden Death in Sleep of Laotian-Hmong Refugees in Thailand.” American Journal of Public
Health 77 (September 1987): 1187-90.

Westermeyer, J. (1987). “Prevention of Mental Disorder Among Hmong Refugees in the U.S.: Lessons from the
Period 1976-1986.” Social Science and Medicine 25: 941-947.

Bliatout, B.T. (1986). “Guidelines for Mental Health Professionals to Help Hmong Clients Seek Traditional Healing
Treatment.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.S. Deinard, 349-63.

Cappelletty, Gordon Guy, II (1986). Factors Affecting Psychological Distress Within The Hmong Refugee Community
(Acculturation, Southeast Asian), PhD dissertation. California School of Professional Psychology – Fresno.

Munger, R.G. (1986). “Sleep Disturbances and Sudden Death of Hmong Refugees: A Report on Fieldwork
Conducted in the Ban Vinai Refugee Camp.” In The Hmong in Transition, ed. by G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, and A.
S. Deinard, 379-98.

Westermeyer, J. (1986). “Two Self-Rating Scales For Depression in Hmong Refugees: Assessment in Clinical and
Nonclinical Samples.” Journal of Psychiatric Research 20: 103-13.

Williams, C.L. and J. Westermeyer, eds. (1986). Refugee Mental Health in Resettlement Countries. Washington D.C.:
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.

Bliatout B.T. (1985). "Guidelines for Mental Health Professionals to help Hmong Clients Seek Traditional Healing
Treatment." In The Hmong in Transition, Eds. G.L. Hendricks, B.T. Downing, A.S. Deinard. Staten Island, NY: Center
for Migration Studies of New York.

Munger, R.G. (1985). Sudden Death in Sleep of Asian Adults. PhD Dissertation, University of Washington.

Munger, Ronald Grant (1985). Sudden Death In Sleep Of Asian Adults (Epidemiology, Hmong, Filipinos, Public
Health), PhD dissertations. University of Washington.

Westermeyer, J. (1985). “Mental Health of Southeast Asian Refugees: Observations Over Two Decades from Laos
and the United States.” In Southeast Asian Mental Health: Treatment, Prevention, Services, Training and Research,
ed. by T.C. Owan, 65-89.

Hayes, C.L. (1984). A Study of the Older Hmong Refugees in the United States. PhD Dissertation, The Fielding
Institute.

Meredith, W.H. (1984). “Level and Correlates of Perceived Quality of Life for Lao Hmong Refugees in Nebraska.”
Social Indicators Research 14 (January 1984): 83-97.

Westermeyer, J., Vang, T.F., and J. Neider. (1984). “Symptom Change Over Time Among Hmong Refugees:
Psychiatric Patients Versus Nonpatients.” Psychopathology 17 (July-August 1984): 168-77.

Westermeyer, J., Bouafuely, M., and T.F. Vang. (1984). “Hmong Refugees in Minnesota: Sex Roles and Mental
Health.” Medical Anthropology 8 (Fall 1984): 229-45.

Westermeyer, J., Neider, J., T.F. Vang (1984). “Acculturation and Mental Health: A Study of Hmong Refugees at 1.5
and 3.5 Years Postmigration.” Social Science and Medicine 18: 87-93.

Jacobson, M.L. and T.W. Crowson. (1983). “Screening for Depression in Hmong Refugees.” Minnesota Medicine 66
(September 1983): 573-574.

Lemoine, J. and C. Mougne. (1983). “Why Has Death Stalked the Refugees?” Natural History 92 (November 1983): 6-
19.

Meredith, W.H. (1983). Level and Correlates of Perceived Quality of Life for Lao Hmong Refugees in Nebraska.
Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

Tobin, J.J. and J. Friedman. (1983). “Spirits, Shamans, and Nightmare Death: Survivor Stress in a Hmong Refugee.”
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 53 (July 1983): 439-48.

Westermeyer, J., Vang, T.F. and G. Lyfong. (1983). Hmong Refugees in Minnesota: Characteristics and Self
Perceptions. Minnesota Medicine 66: 431-439.

Westermeyer, J., Vang, T.F., and J. Neider. (1983). A Comparison of Refugees Using and Not Using A Psychiatric
Service: An Analysis of DSM-111 Criteria and Self Rating scales in Cross-Cultural Context. Journal of Operational
Psychiatry 14(1): 36-40.

Westermeyer, J., Vang, T.F., and J. Neider. (1983). Refugees Who Do and Who Do Not Seek Psychiatric Care: An
Analysis of Premigratory and Postmigratory Characteristics. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 171(2): 86-
91.

Westermeyer, J., Vang, T.F., and J. Neider. (1983). Migration and Mental Health Among Hmong Refugees:
Association of Pre- and Post-migration Factors with Self-Rating Scales. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
171(2): 92-96.

Larue, M. (1982). Stress And Coping Of The Indochinese Refugees In A California Community, PhD dissertation.
United States International University.

Munger, R. (1982). Sudden Adult Death in Asian Populations: The Case of the Hmong. In the Hmong in the West:
Observations and Reports. B.T. Downing and D.P. Olney, eds., pp. 307-319. Minneapolis: Center for Urban and
Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota.

Rogers, T.J. and R. Stasik. (1981). An Assessment of the Impact on Mental Health Service Providers by Southeast
Asian Refugees in Minnesota: A Survey of 50 Selected Mental Health Service Providers. (Unpublished).

Aylesworth, L.S. (1980). Stress, Mental Health and Need Satisfaction Among Indochinese In Colorado. PhD
Dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder.

Bliatout, Bruce Thowpaou (1980). The Hmong from Laos. In People and Cultures of Hawaii: A Psychocultural Profile.
John F. McDermott, Jr., et al., eds., pp. 217-224. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii.

Westermeyer, J. (1979). “Folk” Explanations of Mental Illness in Rural Laos. American Journal of Psychiatry 136(7):
901-905.