Race Relations and the Hmong

Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer PhD

DePouw, C. (2012). "When Culture implies Deficit: Placing Race at the Center of Hmong American Education." Race,
Ethnicity, and Education, 15(2): 223-239.

Schein, L. V.M. Thoj, B. Vang and L.C.T. Jalao. (2012). "Beyond Gran Torino’s Guns: Hmong Cultural Warriors
Performing Genders." Positions 20(3): 763-792.

Wilcox, H.N. (2012). "The Mediated Figure of Hmong Farmer, Hmong Studies, and Asian American Critique."
Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13(1).

Vang, M. (2012). Displaced Histories: Refugee Critique and the Politics of Hmong American Remembering. PhD
Dissertation, University of California, San Diego.

Vang, M. (2012). "The Refugee Soldier: A Critique of Recognition and Citizenship in the Hmong Veterans’
Naturalization Act of 1997." Positions 20(3): 685-712.

Potts, M. (2011). “The Serfs of Arkansas: Immigrant Farmers are Flocking to the Poultry Industry – Only to Become
21st Century Sharecroppers for Companies like Tyson.” The American Prospect, Volume 22 (3)(April 2011).

Takei, I. and A. Sakamoto. (2011). “Poverty Among Asian Americans in the 21st Century.” Sociological Perspectives
54(2): 251-276.

Allen, R. and E.G. Goetz. (2010). “Nativity, Ethnicity, and Residential Relocation: The Experience of
Hmong Refugees and African Americans Displaced from Public Housing.” Journal of Urban Affairs 32(3):

Ngo, B. (2010). “Doing ‘Diversity’ at Dynamic High: Problems and Possibilities of Multicultural Education in Practice.”
Education and Urban Society 42(4): 473-495.

Schein L. and B. Vang. (2010). "Gran Torino's Hmong Lead Bee Vang on Film, Race, and Masculinity: Conversations
with Louisa Schein, Spring 2010." Hmong Studies Journal, 11: 1-11.

Vang, C.Y. (2010). Hmong America: Reconstructing Community in Diaspora. Champaign, IL:
University of Illinois Press.

Xiong, Y.S. (2010). “State Mandated Language Classification: A Study of Hmong American Students’
Access to College-Preparatory Curricula.” AAPI Nexus 8(1): 17-42.

Hein, J. and C.D. Moore. (2009). “Race Relations Stories: How Southeast Asian Refugees Interpret the Ancestral
Narration of Black and White Peers.” Social Psychology Quarterly 72(1): 9-23.

Lee, P. (2009). Racial Assimilation and Popular Culture: Hmong Youth (Sub)cultures and the
Persistance of the Color Line. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Schein, L. and V.M. Thoj. (2009). "Gran Torino's Boys and Men with Guns: Hmong Perspectives." Hmong Studies
Journal, Volume 9: 1-52.

Bengston, D.N., Schermann, M., Moua, M., and Lee, T.T. (2008). "Listening to Neglected Voices: Hmong and Public
Lands in Minnesota and Wisconsin."Society & Natural Resources, Nov/Dec2008 21(10): 876-890.

Schein, L., and Thoj, V-M. (2008). "Violence, Hmong American Visibility and the Precariousness of Asian Race."
PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 123(5): 1752-1756.

Jesilow J. and M. Xiong. (2007). "Constructing a Social Problem: Suicide, Acculturation and the Hmong."Hmong
Studies Journal, Vol 8, 2007

Schein, L. and V.M. Thoj. (2007). “Occult Racism: The Masking of Race in the Hmong Hunter Incident. A Dialogue
between Anthropologist Louisa Schein and Filmmaker/Activist Va-Megn Thoj.” American Quarterly 59(4): 1051-95.  

Her, V.K. and M.L. Buley-Meissner. (2006). "‘Why Would We Want Those Students Here?’: Bridges and Barriers to
Building Campus Community Partnerships." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 7, 2006

Hein, J. (2006). Ethnic Origins: The Adaptation of Cambodian and Hmong Refugees in Four American Cities. New
York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Trudeau, Dennis. (2006). “Politics of belonging in the construction of landscapes: place-making, boundary-drawing
and exclusion.” Cultural Geographies 13(3): 421-443.

Lee, S.J. (2005). Up Against Whiteness: Race, School, and Immigrant Youth. New York: Teachers College Press.

Chiu, Monica. (2004). "Medical, Racist, and Colonial Constructions of Power: Creating the Asian American Patient
and the Cultural Citizen in Anne Fadiman’s The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down." Hmong Studies Journal,
Volume 5. www.hmongstudies.org

Goh, M., Dunnigan, T., and K.M. Schuchman. (2004). “Bias in Counseling Hmong Clients with Limited English
Proficiency.” The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination: Ethnicity and Multiracial Identity, Vol. 2, p. 109-136.

Chang, John Paokong and Jerry Rosiek. (2003). “Anti-Colonialist Antinomies in a Biology Lesson: A Case Study of
Cultural Conflict in a Science Classroom.” Curriculum Inquiry 33 (3), 251-290.

Faruque, Cathleen Jo. (2003). "Migration of Hmong to Rochester, Minnesota: Life in the Midwest." Hmong Studies
Journal, 4:1-50.

Powers, Steven R. (2003). Asian American Students’ Experiences of Secondary United States History Course Work.
M.A. Thesis, Hamline University.

Rockler, Naomi.R. (2003). “Entertainment, the Personal, and the Political: Therapeutic Rhetoric and Popular Culture
Controversies.” The Communication Review 6: 97-115.

Yang, Kou. (2003). "Hmong Americans: A Review of Felt Needs, Problems, and Community Development” Hmong
Studies Journal 4:1-23. (View at www.hmongstudies.org)

Goodkind, Jessica Rose. (2002). Promoting Refugee Well-being: A Community-Based Advocacy and Learning
Intervention. PhD Dissertation, Michigan State University.

Goodkind, JR and Foster-Fishman, PG (2002). "Integrating diversity and fostering interdependence: Ecological
lessons learned about refugee participation in multiethnic communities." (Hmong in Lansing, MI) JOURNAL OF

Her, Kennedee. (2002). Combating Racism, Bigotry, and Prejudice: Preliminary Research for Development of an Oral
History CD on the Cultural Heritage of Hmong Americans. MS Thesis, University of Wisconsin Stout.

Hwang, Victor M. (2002). “The Hmong Campaign for Justice: A Practitioner’s Perspective.” Asian Law Journal 9: 83-

Lee, S.Q., Templer, D.I., Mar J., and M. Canfield. (2002). “Social Distance and Trait Attribution among four Southeast
Asian ethnic groups in the United States.” Psychological Reports 91(1): 326-330.

AU: Lee, SJ TI: Learning "America" - Hmong American high school students SO: EDUCATION AND URBAN SOCIETY
BP: 233 EP: 246 PG: 14 PY: 2002 PD: FEB VL: 34 IS: 2

Beger, R.R. and J. Hein. (2001). "Immigrants, Culture, and American Courts: A Typology of Legal Strategies and
Issues in Cases Involving Vietnamese and Hmong Litigants." Criminal Justice Review 26(1): 38-60.

Ly, C. (2001). “The conflict between law and culture: The case of the Hmong in America.” Wisconsin Law Review. 2:

Hein, J. (2000). "Interpersonal Discrimination Against Hmong Americans: Parallels and Variation in Microlevel Racial
Inequality." Sociological Quarterly 41(3): 413-429.

Goodkind, Jessica Rose (1999). An ecological investigation of Hmong refugees' participation experiences in
multiethnic communities, MA dissertation. Michigan State University.

Hones, D.F. (1999). “Making peace: A narrative study of a bilingual (Hmong) liaison, a school and a community.”
Teachers College Record. 101(1): 106-134.

Lee, Stacey J. (1999). "Are you Chinese or what?" Ethnic identity among Asian Americans. In Rosa Hernandez
Sheets, Etta R. Hollins (Eds.), Racial and ethnic identity in school practices: Aspects of human development (pp. 107-
121). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kolytk, J.A. (1998). New Pioneers in the Heartland: Hmong Life in Wisconsin. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

New faces on Main Street: A review of immigration in the U.S. at the dawn of the 21st century [videorecording].
(1998). A co-production of NEWIST/CES #7 and Wisconsin Public Television in association with CEN and ITVS. Green

Inoway-Ronnie, Eden Toshiko (1996). Teachers' constructions of cultural diversity: An ethnographic study of two
multiethnic and multiracial Head Start classrooms, PhD dissertation. The University of Wisconsin – Madison.

Malgren, Daniel M. (1996). Community oriented policing in the Asian community of Saint Paul, Minnesota. [Typescript]

Cole, Wendy. (1995). Strangers in a strange land. (Hmong children in Wausau, Wisconsin) Time Oct 9 1995 146(15):

Jett, Anne D. (1995). The Hmong as News: A Case Study of How a Local Press Portrays a Socially Marginalized
Group. M.A. thesis, University of Minnesota.

Koltyk, Jo Ann (1995). New Pioneers In The Heartland: Hmong Life In Wisconsin (Refugees), PhD dissertation. The
University of Wisconsin – Madison

Lindell, Pamela Nanci. (1995). The Hmong of Eureka: a study of medical plurism and social conflict . M.A. thesis,
University of Nevada, Reno.

Neira, John E. (1995). Acculturation of Hmong students: how they feel about life in the United States and their school
guidance counselors. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout.

Beck, R. (1994). "The Ordeal of Immigration in Wausau." Atlantic Monthly, April 1994, 84+

Evans-Pritchard, D. & Rundeln, A.D. (1994). The Interpretation and Distortion of Culture: A Hmong "Marriage by
Capture" Case in Fresno, California. Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, 4(1): 1-48.

Hein, Jeremy. (1994). From migrant to minority: Hmong refugees and the social construction of identity in the United
States. Sociological Inquiry, 64(3), 281-306.

Rettig, Perry Richard (1994). Minority Teacher Preparation In An Ex-Urban Setting: The Utop Case Study, PHD
dissertation. Marquette University.

Trevison, C. (1993). “Changing Sexual Assault and the Hmong.” Indiana Law Review 27: 393-314.

Call, K.T. and M. McNall (1992). “Poverty, Ethnicity, and Youth Adjustment: A Comparison of Poor Hmong and Non-
Hmong Adolescents.” In Adolescence, Careers, and Cultures, edited by. W. Meeus, M. Goede, W. Kox and K.
Hurrelmann, 373-392. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Conquergood, D. (1992). "Life in Big Red: Struggles and Accomodations in a Chicago Polyethnic Tenement." In
Structuring Diversity: Ethnographic Perspectives on the New Immigration, edited by L. Lamphere, 95-144. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.

Ruefle, W., Ross, W.H., and D. Mandell. (1992). “Attitudes Toward Southeast Asian Immigrants in a Wisconsin
Community.” International Migration Review 26(3): 877-898.

McInnes-Dittrich, K. (1990). “Working with the Hmong Community in the Small City.” In Ninth Conference on the Small
City and Regional Community: Cultural Diversity in the Small City, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, 1990, ed.
by E.J. Miller and R.P. Wolensky, 29-36. Stevens Point, WI: Foundation Press.

Podeschi, R. (1990). “Teaching Their Own: Minority Challenges to Mainstream Institutions. New Directions for Adult
and Continuing Education 48 (Winter 1990): 55-65. (Study of Hmong in Milwaukee).

Snider, W. (1990). “Fresno Schools, Hmong Refugees Seek Common Ground.” Education Week, 5, December 1990,
1, 12-13.

Mitchell, R. (1987). “The Will to Believe and Anti-Refugee Rumors.” Midwestern Folklore 13, no. 1: 5-15.

Scott, G.M. (1987). “To Catch or Not to Catch a Thief: A Case of Bride Theft Among the Lao Hmong Refugees in
Southern California.” Ethnic Groups 7: 137-151.

Olney, D. (1983). The Hmong and Their Neighbors. CURA Reporter (University of Minnesota, Center for Urban and
Regional Affairs). 8(1): 8-14. Bessac, Susanne and Frank B. (1982). American Perceptions of Hmong Ethnicity: A
Study of Hmong Refugees in Missoula, Montana. Contributions to Southeast Asian Ethnography. Studies of Ethnic
Minority Peoples, Anthony R. Walker, ed., pp. 56-71.

Calderon, E. (1982). The Impact of Indochinese Resettlement in Phillips and Elliot Park Neighborhoods in South
Minneapolis. In the Hmong in the West: Observations and Reports. B.T. Downing and D.P. Olney, eds. pp. 267-286.
Minneapolis: Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota.

Kershaw, G. (1982). Hmong Families in Long Beach 1978-1982: Between Incorporation and Rejection. Paper Read at
the Southwestern Anthropological Association Meetings, April 1982. (Unpublished).

Matsumoto, D.R. (1982). Asian Women and the Law: Two Case Studies. In Asian and Pacific American Experiences:
Women’s Perspectives. Nobuya Tsuchida, ed., pp. 230-245. Minneapolis: Asian/Pacific American Learning Resource
Center, University of Minnesota.