Socioeconomic Incorporation of Hmong in Asia and the West

Compiled by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD

Pfeifer, M.E., Sullivan, J., Yang, K. and W. Yang. (2012). "Hmong Population and Demographic Trends in the
2010 Census and 2010 American Community Survey." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 13(2).

Vang, C.Y. (2012). "Making Ends Meet: Hmong Socioeconomic Trends in the U.S." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol.  13
(2).


Brady, M. (2011). Hmong gardening in Anchorage, AK: Cultural Continuity and Change in a Far North
Diaspora. MA Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage.


Hickman, J.R. (2011). Morality and Personhood in the Hmong Diaspora: A Person-Centered Ethnography of
Migration and Resettlement. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago.

Michaud, J. and T. Forsyth. (2011). Moving Mountains: Ethnicity and Livelihoods in Highland China, Vietnam and
Laos. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Nibbs, F.G. (2011). Refugeehood and Belonging: Processes, Intersections, and Agency in Two Hmong Resettlement
Communities. Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Methodist University.

Potts, M. (2011). “The Serfs of Arkansas: Immigrant Farmers are Flocking to the Poultry Industry Only to Become
21st Century Sharecroppers for Companies like Tyson.” The American Prospect, Volume 22 (3)(April 2011).

Takei, I. and A. Sakamoto. (2011). “Poverty Among Asian Americans in the 21st Century.” Sociological Perspectives
54(2): 251-276.

Westermeyer, J.J. (2011). “Refugee Resettlement to the United States: Recommendations for a New Approach.” The
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 199(8): 532-536.

Vang, C.Y. (2011). Video Review: Better Places: The Hmong of Rhode Island a Generation Later by Chia Youyee
Vang, Hmong Studies Journal, 12: 1-3.

Allen, R. and E.G. Goetz. (2010). “Nativity, Ethnicity, and Residential Relocation: The Experience of
Hmong Refugees and African Americans Displaced from Public Housing.” Journal of Urban Affairs 32(3):
321-344.

Solheim, C.A. and P.D. Yang. (2010). “Understanding Generational Differences in Financial
Literacy in Hmong Immigrant Families.” Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal 38(4): 435-454.

Thao, P.N. (2010). Proprietors without a Spiritual Pillar: The Search for Revitalization among Hmong
in the Midwestern United States. PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Vang, C.Y. (2010). Hmong America: Reconstructing Community in Diaspora. Champaign, IL:
University of Illinois Press.

Wyly, E.K., Martin, D.G., Mendez, P. and S. R. Holloway. (2010). “Transnational Tense: Immigration and Inequality in
American Housing Markets.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36(2): 187-208.

Yang, A. (2010). Themes in the Career Development of 1.5 Generation Hmong American Women. PhD
Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Gritoleit, G. (2009). Integrationsvarianten. Die Hmong in den USA. Passau: Karl Stutz.

Eldridge, M.U. (2008). "New Mountain, New River, New Home? The Tasmanian Hmong."
M.S. Thesis, University of Tasmania. http://eprints.utas.edu.au/7276/

Dearborn, L.M. (2008). "Immigrant homeowners: Residential choices of low- and moderate-income Hmong in
Milwaukee's Central City." Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 25(1): 24-41.

Paulson, A. and S.L.W. Rhine. (2008). “The Financial Assimilation of an Immigrant Group:
Evidence on the Use of Checking and Savings Accounts and Currency Exchanges.” Journal of
Family and Economic Issues 29: 264-278.

Pfeifer, M. (2008). “Cambodian, Hmong, Lao and Vietnamese Americans in the 2005 American Survey.” Journal of
Southeast Asian American Education and Advancement, 3: 1-21. http://jsaaea.coehd.utsa.edu/index.
php/JSAAEA/issue/current

Yang, P.D. and C.A. Solheim. (2007). "Financial Management in Hmong Immigrant Families: Change and Adaptation."
Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 8 2007

Moua, T.T.. (2007). Change and Choice: Hmongs’ Identification with a Homeland. PsyD Dissertation, Alliant
International University, Fresno.

Sakamoto, A. and Woo, H. (2007). “The Socioeconomic Attainments of Second-Generation Cambodian, Hmong,
Laotian, and Vietnamese Americans.” Sociological Inquiry 77(1): 44-75.

Grigoleit, G. (2006). "Coming Home? The Integration of Hmong Refugees from Wat Tham Krabok, Thailand into
American Society." Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 7, 2006

Hadjiyanni, T. (2006). “Integrating Social Science Research into Studio Teaching: Housing New Immigrants.” Open
House International 31(3): 60-66.

Hein, J. (2006). Ethnic Origins: The Adaptation of Cambodian and Hmong Refugees in Four American Cities. New
York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Nibbs, F. (2006). "The Texas Two-Step, Hmong Style: A Delicate Dance Between Culture and Ethnicity." Hmong  
Studies Journal, Vol 7, 2006.

Schermann, M.A. et. al. (2006). “Characteristics of Children’s Agricultural Tasks in Hmong Farming Communities.”
Journal of Agromedicine 11(3/4): 121-132.

Vang, C.Y. (2006). Reconstructing Community in Diaspora: Narratives of Hmong American Refugee Resistance and
Human Agency. PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Yang, S. (2006). Hmong social and political capital: The formation and maintenance of Hmong-American
organizations. PhD Dissertation, Northern Illinois University, 2006, 342 pages

Carroll, Wayne and Victoria Udalova. (2005). "Who is Hmong? Questions and Evidence from the U.S. Census"
Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 6, 2005

Clarkin, Patrick F. (2005). "Hmong Resettlement in French Guiana" Hmong Studies Journal, Vol 6, 2005

Goodkind, Jessica R.. (2005). "Effectiveness of a Community-Based Advocacy and Learning Program for Hmong
Refugees." American Journal of Community Psychology. 36(3/4): 387-408.

Dearborn, Lynne M. (2004). Immigrant culture and housing provision, examining the nexus: A case study of the
ACTS Landmark Housing Program and its Hmong participants (Wisconsin). PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-
Milwaukee.

Hmong National Development and Hmong Cultural Center. (2004). Hmong 2000 Census: Data and Analysis.
Washington D.C. and Saint Paul: Hmong National Development and Hmong Cultural Center.

Marc Kaufman. (2004). “American Odyssey.” Smithsonian 35(6): 7 pages.

Lee, Gary Yia. (2004). “Culture and Settlement: The Present Situation of the Hmong in Australia.” In The Hmong of
Australia: Culture and Diaspora. Eds. Nicholas Tapp and Gary Yia Lee. Canberra, Australia: Pandanus Books,
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, 11-24.

Kalyani Rai. (2004). “Community-Based Participatory Action Research: Offering Hmong Welfare Recipients’ Voices
for Dialogue and Change.” In Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Poverty of Policy, editors Philip Kretsedemas and
Ana Aparicio. Westport, Conn: Praeger, pp. 187-203.

Tapp, Nicholas. (2004). “Hmong Diaspora in Australia.” In The Hmong of Australia: Culture and Diaspora. Eds.
Nicholas Tapp and Gary Yia Lee. Canberra, Australia: Pandanus Books, Research School of Pacific and Asian
Studies, The Australian National University, 59-96.

SEARAC (2004). Southeast Asian American Statistical Profile. Research Report (includes Hmong).

Council on Asian-Pacific Minnesotans and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in Philanthropy-Minnesota Chapter.
(2003). Asian and Pacific Islander Minnesota Profile (includes Hmong).

University of Wisconsin Extension and Applied Population Laboratory. (2003). “Hmong Chartbook: Wisconsin’s
Hmong Population Census 2000 Population and other Demographic Trends.” Report prepared for University of
Wisconsin Educational Needs Assessment.

Kent Olson, Vang Yang, Nigatu Tadesse, Yanping Chang, Nengshao Yang, Seung-wan Lee (2003). “Results of a
Farm and Market Survey for Hmong Specialty Crop Framers in the Minneapolis, St. Paul Metro Area.” Special Report
(December 2003), 1-39.

Thao, Toulu Pa-Ge. (2003). A Path Towards Homeownership: Educating the Minority. PhD Dissertation, California
State University, Fresno and University of California, Davis.

Miriam Potocky- Tripodi. (2003). “Refugee Economic Adaptation: Theory, Evidence, and Implications for policy and
practice.” Journal of Social Service Research, Volume 30(1), pp63-91.

Faruque, Cathleen Jo. (2003). "Migration of Hmong to Rochester, Minnesota: Life in the Midwest." Hmong Studies
Journal, 4:1-50.

Pfeifer, Mark E. (2003). “The Hmong in America.” From The New Face of Asian Pacific America: Numbers, Diversity
and Change in the 21st Century. Editors: Eric Lai and Dennis Arguelles. San Francisco and Los Angeles: Asian
Week and UCLA Asian American Studies Center Press, pp. 96-98.

Yang, Kou. (2003). "Hmong Americans: A Review of Felt Needs, Problems, and Community Development” Hmong
Studies Journal 4:1-23.

Yang, Tou T. (2003). "Hmong of Germany: Preliminary Report on the Resettlement of Lao Hmong Refugees in
Germany." Hmong Studies Journal, 4:1-14

University of Wisconsin-Extension (2002). "Wisconsin's Hmong Population: Census 2000 Population and Trends."
Report Prepared by University of Wisconsin-Extension and Applied Population Laboratory, Madison, WI for UW-
Extension, Hmong Educational Needs Assessment, Stevens Point, WI, Dec. 12-13, 2002.

Faruque, Cathleen Jo. (2002). Migration of Hmong to the Midwestern United States. Lanham, Maryland: University
Press of America.

Koltyk, Jo Ann. (2002). “The Hmong in Wisconsin.” In Endangered Peoples of North America: Struggles to Survive
and Thrive. Ed. Tom Greaves. Westport, CT: The Greenwood Press, pp. 195-211.

Omoto, Susan. (2002). Hmong Milestones in America: Citizens in a New World. Evanston, IL: John Gordon Burke
Publishers.

Tungittiplakorn, Waranoot and Phillip Dearden. (2002). “Biodiversity Conservation and Cash Crop Development in
Northern Thailand.” In Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 2007-2025.

Anderson, K.E. (2001). The Meaning of Giving in the Hmong Community. MA Thesis. Saint Mary’s University of
Minnesota.

Lo, F. (2001). The Promised Land: Socioeconomic Reality of the Hmong in Urban America. Bristol, IN: Wyndham Hill
Press.

Tanaka, S.T. (2001). Immigrant farmer's gold mine: The strawberry (California). MA Thesis, California State
University, Stanislaus.

Yang, Kou. (2001). “The Hmong in America: Twenty Five Years after the U.S. Secret War in Laos.” Journal of Asian
American Studies.

Dirks, Suzanne C. (1999). The Hmong: A Human Resource in Transition. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Hein, J. (2000). "Interpersonal Discrimination Against Hmong Americans: Parallels and Variation in Microlevel Racial
Inequality." Sociological Quarterly 41(3): 413-429.

Lo, Fungchatou (2000). The Promised Land: Socioeconomic adjustment of the Hmong in Milwaukee, 1976-2000,
PhD dissertation. The University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee.

Nguyen, Van Minh. (2000). “Agricultural Adaptation of the Hmong in Vietnam.” Vietnam Social Sciences 6(80): 75-95.

Washburne, J.A. (2000). Hmong-American Mortgage Acceptance Rates in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and Saint
Paul. MA Thesis, Hamline University.

Eberhard, Susie Jane (1999). Family and parent experiences in welfare-to-work transition: Psychological, social and
disability factors, PhD dissertation. The University of Wisconsin – Madison.

Salaün P., 1999.- Le système de production agricole hmong à Saül (Guyane française) : modalités de pérennisation.
JATBA, Revue d'Ethnobiologie, vol. 41 (1-2), 251-279.

Xiong, Joshua S. (1999). Hmong Housing in Transition From Private to Public and to Homeownership: Obstacles to
Housing among the Hmong in the United States. M.A. Thesis, Minnesota State University, Mankato.

Miyares, Ines M. (1998). The Hmong refugee experience in the United States: Crossing the river. New York: Garland.

Berkson, Howard. (1997) "Labor-Force Participation Among Southeast Asian Refugee-Immigrants: An Update on
1975 to 1984 Entrants." Hmong Studies Journal Vol. 1 No. 2.

Duchon, D.A. (1997). Home is where you make it: Hmong refugees in Georgia. Urban Anthropology, 26(1), 71-92.

Kaplan, D.H. (1997). "The Creation of an Ethnic Economy: Indochinese Business Expansion in Saint Paul." Economic
Geography, 73(2): 214-233.

Michaud, Jean. (1997). Economic transformation in a Hmong village of Thailand. Human Organization 56(2): 222-233.

Schein, Louisa. (1999). Minority Rules: The Miao and The Feminine in China’s Cultural Politics. Durham, NC: Duke
University Press.

Kolytk, J.A. (1998). New Pioneers in the Heartland: Hmong Life in Wisconsin. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Yang, Kou. (1997) "Hmong Mens' Adaptation to Life in the United States." Hmong Studies Journal Vol. 1 No. 2.

Bulk, J.D. (1996). "American Hmong on the Move: An Explanation of Very Distinctive Secondary Migration Patterns."
Hmong Forum, St. Paul, MN: Haiv Hmoov, Inc., pp. 3-28.

Ireson, Carol J. (1996). Field, Forest, and Family: Women's Work and Power in Rural Laos. Boulder, CO:Westview
Press.

Velasco, Joyce D. (1996). Exploration of employment possibilities for Hmong women with psychiatric disorders. The
Journal of Rehabilitation 62(4): 33.

Alon-Mozes, Tal. (1995). Landscape of immigrants: the Hmong in Merced, Stockton and Sacramento . M.S. thesis,
University of California, Berkeley.

Buranasombati, Pises (1995). A Qualitative Study of Low Socioeconomic Status Students In A Predominantly High
Socioeconomic Status In Bangkok, Thailand (Bangkok Business College), PhD dissertation. Illinois State University.

Ireson, W. Randall (1995). Hmong Demographic Changes in Laos: Causes and Ecological Consequences.
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Koltyk, Jo Ann (1995). New Pioneers In The Heartland: Hmong Life In Wisconsin (Refugees), PhD dissertation. The
University of Wisconsin – Madison

Lee, G.Y. (1995). "Culture and Adaptation: Hmong Refugees in Australia 1976-83." Paper reprinted at www.
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Oveson, J. (1995). A Minority Enters the Nation State: A Case Study of a Hmong Community in Vientiane Province,
Laos. Uppsala, Sweden: Department of Cultural Anthropology, Uppsala University.

Vang, Teng Z. (1995). Hmong Business Development in the Twin Cities, Minnesota. M.A. Thesis, Minnesota State
University, Mankato.

Yang, Kou. (1995). The Hmong in Fresno: a study of Hmong welfare participation and self-sufficiency. Ed.D.
dissertation, University of California, Davis.

Donnelly, Nancy D. (1994). Changing lives of refugee Hmong women . Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Hein, Jeremy. (1994). From migrant to minority: Hmong refugees and the social construction of identity in the United
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Ph.D. dissertation, Arizona State University.

Renard, Ronald D. (1994). The monk, the Hmong, the forest, the cabbage, fire and water: incongruities in northern
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Master’s Thesis, Mankato State University.

Hutchinson, R. (1992). “Acculturation in the Hmong Community.” Green Bay; Milwaukee: Center for Public Affairs,
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of an Entrepreneur-Patron, An Applied Anthropologist-Broker, and a Shopping Mall Sale.” Human Organization 51
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Tan, Cheribeth Uy (1992). Demographic And Psycho-Social Predictors Of Dependency On Public Assistance Among
Southeast Asian And Eastern European Refugees, MA dissertation. Michigan State University.

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