The Vietnamese Studies Internet Resource Center ( and the Hmong Studies Internet
Resource Center ( are sources of comprehensive subject bibliographies related to
Vietnamese and Hmong-related research. In addition, Cambodian research resources are available at the
website of the United Cambodian Association of Minnesota while Lao research resources are
available at the website of the Lao Assistance Center (Minneapolis)


2000 Demographic census data (Summary File 2) pertaining to age and gender distribution, housing tenure
(own vs. rent) and household size for Vietnamese and Hmong populations in states across the U.S. have been
added to the respective Vietnamese and Hmong Studies websites. The same respective data sets have also
been added for the U.S. states with the 10 largest Cambodian and Lao populations at the
and websites. Socioeconomic data (Summary File 3) will be added to these websites when it
becomes available later this year.


A 44-Page fully annotated bibliography of Hmong-related works published between 1996 and 2001 is now
available for order at This volume is the first annotated bibliography of Hmong-
related works compiled in more than 5 years. Full reference information and descriptive summaries are
provided for 294 Hmong-related works. Works are organized into topical subcategories including Dictionaries,
Bibliographies and Reference Works; Hmong in Asia; Hmong Culture; The War in Laos and Refugee
Resettlement Issues; Hmong Families, Parenting and Gender Roles; Settlement Patterns and Socioeconomic
Incorporation; Cultural Adaptation; Race Relations, The Law, and Political Incorporation; Literacy and
Educational Adaptation; Physical and Mental Health; Personal Narratives of Hmong Americans; Juvenile
Literature and Curriculum Materials for Teachers; Fiction; Videos and Internet Resources.



Socio-cultural Adaptation of the Vietnamese diaspora

Demmers, J (2002). “Diaspora and conflict: Locality, long-distance nationalism, and delocalisation of conflict
dynamics.” JAVNOST-THE PUBLIC 9(1): 85-96. Summary: In this paper the author examines the political
mobilisation of diaspora communities and their role In intra- state conflicts. The study includes a discussion of
the involvement of Vietnamese and Cambodians in California in homeland politics. The authors ask the
questions: How and why are diaspora communities involved in intra-state conflicts in their erstwhile homelands?
What activities do they undertake? How are 'they organised? What strategies do they use? And, eventually,
how do they affect contemporary conflicts? By examining these issues the authors aim to understand more
about the dialectics between locality and conflict, the production of long-distance) nationalism, and the
relationship between virtual and spatial communities.

Borooah, VK and Mangan, J (2002). “An analysis of occupational outcomes for Indigenous and Asian
employees in Australia.” ECONOMIC RECORD 78(240): 31-49. Summary: This paper examines occupational
performance in Australia across three ethno-racial groups in Australia: Indigenous Australians; Asian people,
defined as all those whose language spoken at home was either Chinese, Vietnamese or other forms of a
South-east or East Asian language; and white persons, defined as the residual category. The paper has as its
starting point, observed differences in occupational attainment among the three groups in Australia and sets
out to account for these observed differences on the basis of both race and non-racial attributes such as, age,
education and area of residence.

Nguyen, HH; and von Eye, A. (2002). “The Acculturation Scale for Vietnamese Adolescents (ASVA): A
bidimensional perspective.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT 26(3): 202-213.
Summary: The purpose of this study was to develop an acculturation scale that: (1) empirically demonstrated
the bidimensional model; and (2) that pertained to the concerns of Vietnamese adolescents. Altogether, 191
Vietnamese students (ages 10-23) were recruited from eight middle schools and high schools in Lansing,
Michigan (USA). Based on responses from their questionnaires, results indicated that The Acculturation Scale
for Vietnamese Adolescents (ASVA) demonstrated good reliability and validity overall. Confirmatory factor
analyses also demonstrated support for the ASVA's two dimensions (Involvement in the Vietnamese Culture
and Involvement in the US Culture) and four life- domains within each dimension (i.e., Group Interactions,
Everyday Lifestyles, Family Orientation, and Global Involvements).

Le Ha, P. (2002). “How do culturally situated notions of 'polite' forms influence the way Vietnamese
postgraduate students write academic English in Australia?” AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION 45(3):
296-308. This paper explores how the Vietnamese culturally situated notions of 'politeness', which are
embedded in Vietnamese postgraduate students' performance at different Australian universities, influence the
way they write academic English. The data of this qualitative study were collected from in-depth interviews with
four Vietnamese postgraduate students from different universities in Melbourne. The paper also makes
suggestions to Australian academics on how they can best help Vietnamese postgraduate students' writing at

Olenchak, FR and Hebert, TP. (2002). “Endangered academic talent: Lessons learned from gifted first-
generation college males.” JOURNAL OF COLLEGE STUDENT DEVELOPMENT 43(2): 195-212. Summary: Two
case studies of men from diverse cultures, one African American and one Vietnamese American, illustrate the
potential for underachievement among first-generation gifted students at comprehensive universities.
Amplifying previous studies, this research provides a personal examination about attrition among
undergraduates and highlights the influences on underachievement in two gifted university, students.
Conclusions suggest methods for universities to curb the problem as it relates to diverse, high-ability students.

Yang, PQ. (2002). “Citizenship acquisition of post-1965 Asian immigrants.” POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT
23(4): 377-404. This article examines the citizenship acquisition of major post-1965 Asian immigrant groups
including Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Asian Indians, Koreans, and Vietnamese, using the PUMS data from the
1990 U.S. Census and an INS longitudinal data set. The analysis of data reveals a very high average
naturalization rate of post-1965 Asian immigrants and a bifurcated pattern in citizenship acquisition among the
six Asian immigrant groups. Furthermore, the results of a pooled logistic regression model indicate that the
characteristics of Asian immigrants, ethnic communities, and countries of origin largely explain the naturalization
of these Asian immigrants. Separate logistic regression models for the six groups further uncover similarities
and differences in determinants of naturalization across groups. The findings suggest that in terms of
naturalization rates new Asian immigrants are more assimilable than most immigrant groups, including
European immigrants, and that in the foreseeable future Asian Americans are likely to become a swing vote at
the local and possibly state levels and perhaps in presidential elections under some special circumstances.

Vietnamese Culture and History

Liem, NQ., Thanh, NT., and Colomban, P. (2002). “Reliability of Raman micro-spectroscopy in analysing ancient
ceramics: the case of ancient Vietnamese porcelain and celadon glazes.” JOURNAL OF RAMAN
SPECTROSCOPY 33(4): 287-294. Summary: Non-destructive Raman spectroscopy has been used to study
ancient ceramics. On the basis of spectral features characteristic to the microstructures, the composition and
technological processing of ceramics in ancient times could be quantitatively determined. Ceramics are
heterogeneous materials composed of grains of different phases, coated by different glazes containing various
pigments. The question of reliability and representation of the Raman spectra recorded from the surface of
glaze or on a section of shard is discussed. As an illustration, the authors studied ancient (13-14th centuries)
Vietnamese (proto)porcelains made at Ha Lan (Nam Dinh) while giving particular attention to the analysis of the
SiO4-based glassy network.

McHale, S. (2002). “Vietnamese marxism, dissent, and the politics of postcolonial memory: Tran Duc Thao,
1946-1993.” JOURNAL OF ASIAN STUDIES 61(1): 7-31. No Summary Available.

Health and Medical Issues Among Vietnamese Populations

Huong, NM; Davis, TME; Hewitt, S; Van Huong, N; Uyen, TT; Nhan, DH and Cong, LD. (2002). “Comparison of
three antigen detection methods for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of malaria: a field study from
southern Vietnam.” TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH 7(4) 304-308. To compare the
sensitivity, specificity and post- treatment persistence of three commonly used rapid antigen detection methods
the authors studied 252 Vietnamese patients aged from 4 to 60 years, 157 with falciparum and 95 with vivax
malaria and 160 healthy volunteers. The authors conclude that although microscopy remains the gold standard
for malaria diagnosis, Paracheck-Pf(R) may prove a useful adjunctive test in uncomplicated falciparum malaria
in southern Vietnam. OptiMAL(R) had the lowest sensitivity for P. falciparum but it might have a use in the
diagnosis of vivax malaria and perhaps to monitor efficacy of treatment for falciparum malaria where microscopy
is unavailable.

Plant, AJ; Watkins, RE; Gushulak, B; O'Rourke, T; Jones, W; Streeton, J and Sang, D. (2002). “Predictors of
tuberculin reactivity among prospective Vietnamese migrants: the effect of smoking.” EPIDEMIOLOGY AND
INFECTION 128(1): 37-45. Summary: The authors investigated the prevalence and predictors of positive
tuberculin skin test (TST) results among prospective Vietnamese migrants. They interviewed and medically
screened 1395 Vietnamese people aged over 15 years who had applied to migrate to Australia. Approximately
44% of applicants had an induration of 10 mm or more, and 18.6% had an induration of 15 mm or more. A
positive tuberculin skin test at 5 mm, 10 turn and 15 rum of induration cut-points was significantly associated
with age (OR 1.01-1.02 per year) and duration of smoking (OR 1.03-1.12 per year). The researchers conclude
that smoking appears to be an important factor associated with increased susceptibility to mycobacterial
infection. It is not yet clear whether the increased tuberculin reactivity associated with smoking reflects an
increased risk of tuberculosis among these migrants.

Go, VF; Quan, VM; Chung, A; Zenilman, JM; Moulton, LH; and Celentano, DD. (2002). “Barriers to reproductive
tract infection (RTI) care among Vietnamese women - Implications for RTI control programs.” SEXUALLY
TRANSMITTED DISEASES 29(4): 201-206. Summary: Vietnamese women may be especially vulnerable to
reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and their biological and social sequelae. Few data are available on the
prevalence of and health-seeking behavior for RTIs among women in Vietnam. The goal of the authors was to
assess prevalence of RTI symptoms, describe treatment- seeking behaviors, and identify barriers to care
among Vietnamese women. The authors conclude that a substantial number of women in northern Vietnam who
reported RTI symptoms do not seek care. Interventions to raise awareness about RTI symptoms and their
consequences, dissipate negative stereotypes, and encourage open discussion about RTIs should facilitate
appropriate care-seeking for RTIs.

Kwon, CB; Schroeder, DG and Hickey, ML (2002). “Use of structural equation modeling to identify the causes of
malnutrition among Vietnamese children.” FASEB JOURNAL 16(4): A251. No Summary Available.

Lin, SS; Phan, JC; and Lin, AY (2002). “Breast cancer characteristics of Vietnamese women in the Greater San
Francisco Bay Area.” WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 176(2): 87-91. Summary: The authors objectives
were to examine breast cancer characteristics of women of Vietnamese ancestry living in the San Francisco Bay
Area in comparison with those of other racial or ethnic groups in the same area. The authors included breast
cancer cases diagnosed from 1988 to 1999 and compared the age at diagnosis, stage and histologic grade at
diagnosis, estrogen- and progesterone-receptor status, and surgery types across racial or ethnic groups. The
authors also modeled the effect of patient and clinical characteristics and hospital and physician on the racial or
ethnic variations in surgery type.

Ong, AD and Phinney, JS (2002). “Personal goals and depression among Vietnamese American and European
American young adults: A mediational analysis.” JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 142(1): 97-108.
Summary: The authors report preliminary findings supporting the utility of the self-concordance model (K. M.
Sheldon & A. J. Elliot, 1999) as an alternative approach to studying depression among 121 Vietnamese
American and 155 European American college students. The participants completed measures of personal
goals, goal self-concordance, and depression. Compared with the European American participants, the
Vietnamese American participants reported higher levels of depression and lower levels of goal self-
concordance. According to mediational analyses, ethnicity no longer accounted for significant variance in
depression after the authors statistically controlled for goal self-concordance.

Schecter, A; Pavuk, M; Constable, JD; Dai, LC and Papke, O. (2002). “A follow-up: High level of dioxin
contamination in Vietnamese from agent orange, three decades after the end of spraying.” JOURNAL OF

Tomisaka, K; Lako, J; Maruyama, C; Nguyen, TLA; Do, TKL; Khoi, HH and Chuyen, NV (2002). “Dietary patterns
and risk factors for Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Fijian, Japanese and Vietnamese populations.” ASIA PACIFIC
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 11(1): 8-12. Summary: Diabetes mellitus is now a serious and increasing
problem in Asian countries, where dietary patterns have shifted toward Westernized foods and people are
becoming more sedentary, In order to elucidate the relationship of dietary habits to the development of diabetic
risk factors, the dietary patterns of 200 Fijian, 171 Japanese and 181 Vietnamese women of 30-39 years of age
were investigated using 3 day-24 h recall or dietary records, Anthropometric measurements and glycosuria
tests were also conducted.

Shaw, GM; Carmichael, SL and Nelson, V (2002). “Congenital malformations in offspring of Vietnamese women
in California, 1985-97.” TERATOLOGY 65(3): 121-124. Summary: Using data from a large population-based
registry, the authors explored risks of selected congenital malformation phenotypes in offspring of Vietnamese
women in California. Data were derived from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, a population-
based active surveillance system for collecting information on infants and fetuses with congenital malformations
using multiple source ascertainment.

Brugge, D; DeJong, W; Hyde, J; Le, Q; Shih, CS; Wong, A and Tran, A. (2002). “Development of targeted
message concepts for recent Asian immigrants about secondhand smoke.” JOURNAL OF HEALTH
COMMUNICATION 7(1): 25-37. Summary: Residents of Boston's Chinatown and the Vietnamese community in
Boston's Dorchester section are recent immigrants from China and Vietnam, countries whose smoking
prevalence rates for men are among the highest in the world and whose rates for women are very low. The
researchers conducted exploratory focus groups in these communities to examine issues related to
secondhand smoke and to generate message concepts for health education materials that would convince
recent Asian immigrants to respond to the public health threat that secondhand smoke poses. The message
concepts, which were tailored specifically for Chinese and Vietnamese immigrants, used themes that were
consistent with the cultural values of each group as expressed in the focus groups, yet also reflected the fact
that, in many ways, these immigrants are seeking to adapt to American norms. The authors suggest that it is
possible to construct culturally appropriate health education materials for recent immigrant populations rather
than rely on simple translations of English-language materials.

Chung, RCY and Bemak, F. (2002). “Revisiting the California Southeast Asian Mental Health Needs
Assessment data: An examination of refugee ethnic and gender differences.” JOURNAL OF COUNSELING AND
DEVELOPMENT 80(1): 111-119. Summary: This study examines the ethnic and gender differences in the levels
and predictors of distress among 867 Vietnamese, 590 Cambodian and 723 Laotian refugees. The findings
showed that for all 3 groups, refugee women reported a significantly higher level of psychological distress than
their male counterparts. Although there were similarities in the predictors of distress among refugee women and
men, the results also found significant gender differences within and between the different cultural groups.
Implications for counseling practice and research are discussed in light of the findings.


Socio-cultural Adaptation of the Cambodian Diaspora

Becker, G. (2002). “Dying away from home: Quandaries of migration for elders in two ethnic groups.”
95. Summary: The purpose of this study was to examine how Cambodian Americans and Filipino Americans
view their homeland in old age and how those views affect the contemplation of death. using a multifaceted
theoretical framework that encompasses transnationality, place, ethnic identity, continuity, and cultural
phenomenology. The authors observed that many Cambodian Americans and Filipino Americans expressed a
desire to die in their homelands. Whether or not they desired to return to the homeland to die was mediated by
the presence or absence of the extended family, memories of the homeland, and the availability of traditional
ritual practices in the United States.

Health and Medical Issues Affecting Cambodian Populations

Saman, M; Kruy, LS; Glaziou, P; Rekacewicz, C; Leng, C; Min, DC and Delfraissy, JF. (2002). “Feasibility of
antenatal and late HIV testing in pregnant women in Phnom Penh Cambodia: the PERIKAM/ANRS1205 study.”
AIDS 80(1):2-8. Summary Not Available.

Mollica, RF; Cui, XJ; McInnes, K; and Massagli, MP (2002). “Science-based policy for psychosocial interventions
in refugee camps - A Cambodian example.” JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE 190(3): 158-166.
Summary: The objective of this study is to provide an analytic approach to determining the factors associated
with mental health risk among refugee populations. A description is provided from the first large-scale
epidemiological study of Cambodian refugees confined to the Thailand-Cambodian border in the 1980s and
1990s. The original data from this study are reanalyzed to evaluate the mental health impact of psychosocial
factors subject to the influence of camp authorities, such as opportunities in the refugee camp environment and
personal behaviors, in addition to trauma. The results suggest the extraordinary capacity of refugees to protect
themselves against mental illness despite horrific life experiences. The recommendation emerges for refugee
policy makers to create programs that support work, indigenous religious practices, and culture-based altruistic
behavior among refugees. As refugee mental health policy receives increasing attention from the international
community, it must consist of recommendations and practices based on scientific analysis and empirical

Goodfriend, M. (2002). “A personal view from Cambodia.” TROPICAL DOCTOR 32(2): 105-108. No Summary

Gumley, GJ. (2002). “A hand surgeon and his family in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.” CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS
AND RELATED RESEARCH 396: 56-64. No Summary Available.

Husum, H; Heger, T. and Sundet, M. (2002). “Postinjury malaria: A study of trauma victims in Cambodia.”

Bendick, C; Scheifele, C and Reichart, RA (2002). “Oral manifestations in 101 Cambodian patients with HIV
infection and AIDS.” JOURNAL OF ORAL PATHOLOGY & MEDICINE 31(1): 1-4. Summary: The HIV/AIDS
epidemic in Cambodia has become a major problem in the last 7-8 years, mainly because in this formerly war-
stricken country the socioeconomic situation is only slowly improving. Since only very few studies have been
published to date on the oral health status of Cambodian HIV/AIDS patients, it was the purpose of the present
investigation to study oral manifestations in Cambodian patients with HIV disease.

Issues in Contemporary Cambodia

Godfrey, M; Sophal, C; Kato, T; Piseth, LV; Dorina, P; Saravy, T; Savora, T; and Sovannarith, S. (2002).
“Technical assistance and capacity development in an aid-dependent economy: The experience of Cambodia.”
WORLD DEVELOPMENT 30(3): 355-373. Summary: To what extent can external technical assistance develop
the capacity or counterparts, whether in government or in local nongovernmental organizations (LNGOs) in an
aid-dependent economy? Cambodia's experience since 1993 suggests that most projects in such a situation
are donor-driven in their identification, design and implementation, to the detriment of capacity development.
Connected with this is the chronic underfunding of government in such an economy, which hinders
implementation of projects and threatens post-project financial sustainability. The authors argue that unless
donors develop a coherent strategy (rather than competitive, project-related salary supplementation) to deal
with this situation, the record of technical assistance in developing capacity will continue to be disappointing,
and an escape from aid dependence will be postponed.

Un, K and Ledgerwood, J (2002). “Cambodia in 2001 - Toward democratic consolidation?” ASIAN SURVEY 42
(1): 100-106. No Summary Available.

Poethig, K. (2002). “Movable peace: Engaging the transnational in Cambodia's Dhammayietra.” JOURNAL FOR
THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION 41(1): 19-28. The Dhammayietra is an annual peace walk in Cambodia
that originated at the historic repatriation of refugees in the Thai border camps at the U.N.-monitored transition
to democracy in 1992. It situates itself within the discourse and practice of "socially engaged Buddhism" that
has gained visibility in Asia and American Buddhism during the last two decades, As Cambodia's particular form
of socially engaged Buddhism is marked by refugee return, the author argues that the Dhammayietra's revival
of Buddhism in postsocialist Cambodia is only: possible because of its transnational formation, Represented as
a quintessential Khmer Buddhist response to Cambodia's entrenched conflicts, the networks forged beyond the
border of Cambodia have been instrumental in fashioning the face of the Dhammayietra. Though it forges its
discursive identity vis a vis the "local" space of the nation, this local space is mobile. Maha Ghosananda's
instruction to move "step by step" toward peace reappropriates dangerous mobility-the massive relocations
during the Khmer Rouge era, refugee flight, the danger of treading on land fed with mines-and turns walking
into a religious act. It is this discursive "move" that loosens the Dhammayietra's ties to the nation and allows it to
slip across political and religious borders and ally itself with a diverse network of interfaith peace groups that
are its transnational public forum.

Sokh, H; and Iida, S. (2002). “Community forestry models in southeast Asia and Cambodia: A comparative
conventional forest management to community forestry is arguably a major development of forest management
of many Southeast Asian countries in the last few decades. This study aims to provide a picture of community
forestry models in Southeast Asia and Cambodia and draw upon what Cambodia can learn from experience of
Southeast Asia. According to the authors, the study demonstrates that, based on the types of land use
certificate issued to participants, community forestry programs in Southeast Asia can be classified into three
types: (1) community forestry programs in which land use certificates are issued to individuals, (2) community
forestry programs in which land use certificates are issued to communities and (3) community forestry programs
as forest protection contracts.

Cambodian History

Coq, C; Coq, G; and Ponchaud, F. (2002). “Genocide in Khmer history - A conversation with Francois
Ponchaud, missionary living in Cambodia.” ESPRIT 1: 42-51. No Summary Available.

Fox, J. (2002). “Siam mapped and mapping in Cambodia: Boundaries, sovereignty, and indigenous conceptions
of space.” SOCIETY & NATURAL RESOURCES 15(1): 65-78. This article explores differences and similarities
between the introduction of mapping into Thailand in the beginning of the nineteenth century and efforts to map
customary land use in Cambodia at the end of the 20th century. The comparison suggests that indigenous
conceptions of space have been overwhelmed by the need to have a location that can be recognized by
political power. That mapping should not stop with the delineation of boundaries but needs to be carried to its
conclusion in the recognition of the bundles of overlapping, hierarchical rights that der ne property. Finally, who
does the mapping is not as essential as who controls the maps. Imbedded within the context of who makes and
controls maps is the challenge of balancing the need for community participation-with implications for lower
levels of technology and accuracy-against the need to establish legal rights to these lands-with implications for
more sophisticated technology and greater accuracy.


Socio-cultural Adaptation of the Hmong Diaspora

Lee, S.J. (2002). “Learning ‘America’: Hmong American High School Students.” Education and Urban Society 34
(2): 233-246. This ethnographic study explores the way Hmong-American students at a public high school in
Wisconsin interpret what it means to be Hmong in the United States. It examines the way a culture of
“Whiteness” at the school shapes Hmong-American students’ experiences and their understandings about
being American. The researcher explores the content of what the school teaches Hmong students about
America and being American; the social constructions non-Hmong students and staff have of Hmong-American
students and the ways the Hmong-American students in the Wisconsin school respond to the culture of
“Whiteness”. One specific issue dealt with at considerable length by the author is the school’s practice of
referring most Hmong students to ESL programs as soon as they encounter academic difficulties. This article
will be of particular interest to teachers and educational professionals who work with Hmong-origin populations.

Health and Medical Issues

Corlett, JL; Clegg, MS; Keen, CL; and Grivetti, LE (2002). “Mineral content of culinary and medicinal plants
cultivated by Hmong refugees living in Sacramento, California.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD
SCIENCES AND NUTRITION 53(2): 117-128. Summary: In this study, culinary and medicinal herbs grown by
Hmong refugees in Sacramento, California were identified and analyzed for mineral composition. The herbs
grown in these urban gardens were significant ingredients of Hmong recipes, and herb leaves, or infusions of
steamed herb leaves were widely consumed as a component of pregnancy and post-partum diets. The studied
culinary-medicinal species with the highest mineral profiles included: Basella alba (Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn); Houttuynia
cordata (Fe, Mg, Mn); Justica gendarussa (Ca, Mg, Zn); and Polygonum odoratum (Ca, Mg, Mn).

Franzoi, SL and Chang, Z. (2002). “The body esteem of Hmong and Caucasian young adults.” PSYCHOLOGY
OF WOMEN QUARTERLY 26(1): 89-91. This study investigated race and gender differences among 73 Hmong
American and 80 Caucasian American college students. Racial differences were found only among the women,
with Hmong women holding more positive attititudes toward weight concerning body items and expressing less
interest in changing these body items than Caucasian women. There were no gender differences among the
Hmong, and the gender differences among Caucasians involved weight concern. Increased body mass was
correlated with negative body attitudes among Caucasian and Hmong women and among Hmong men, whereas
increased body mass was correlated with positive upper-body attitudes among Caucasian men.

Clarkin, PF. (2002). “Effects of early environment and later modernization on linear growth, body composition,
and blood pressure in the Hmong diaspora.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 14(1): 12. No
Summary Available.

Ishida, T; Takao, S; Settheetham-Ishida, W. and Tiwawech, D. (2002). “Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus
infection in rural ethnic populations of Northern Thailand.” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL VIROLOGY. The prevalence
of HBV and HCV infection in Thai ethnic minorities (including Hmong) was investigated. We demonstrated that
HBV was a more common infectious agent found in these populations than HCV. The prevalence of HBV
infection was different by ethnic group but not by sex. In contrast, the prevalence of HCV infection was not
different by tribe but by sex (males were infected more than females). The present study showed that HBV and
HCV infection are widely spread in rural ethnic populations of northern Thailand. Thus, the authors posit that a
nation wide but community-based epidemiological survey is required for the public health planning to control the
related serious diseases among ethnic populations in this region of Thailand.

Hmong History

Pfeifer, M.E. “Hmong-Related Research: Past, Present, and Future Directions.” Paper Presented at the Hmong
National Conference, Milwaukee, WI April 15, 2002. Summary: A temporal overview of the concerns of Hmong-
related scholarship from the early 19th century to the present. The work discusses the major scholars and most
prevalent themes associated with the Hmong-related literature produced in the Western world in the past 200
years. The paper may be viewed and downloaded at:


Health and Medical Issues Affecting Lao Populations

Lyttleton, C and Amarapibal, A (2002). “Sister cities and easy passage: HIV, mobility and economies of desire in
a Thai/Lao border zone.” SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 54(4): 505-518. Summary: In this paper the authors
consider a border zone between Thailand and Laos to show that the links between movement and HIV
vulnerability are not confined to stereotypical instances of coercion and exploitation. Rather the authors
demonstrate that HIV risk in this area is a product of both a sense of community and a sense of difference that
combined foster a range of interactions based on mobility back and forth across the border. As HIV/AIDS
prevention programs increasingly control forms of sexual interaction, the border provides a practical and
symbolic opportunity to establish new forms of sexual relationship failing outside these constraints. This
tendency to move outside bounds is not limited to border areas but has implications for prevention programs

Issues in Contemporary Laos

Bourdet Y. (2002). “Laos in 2001 - Political introversion and economic respite.” ASIAN SURVEY 42(1): 107-114.
No Summary Available.

Rao, SA; Bounphanousay, C; Schiller, JM and Jackson, MT. (2002). “Collection, classification, and conservation
of cultivatedand wild rices of the Lao PDR.” GENETIC RESOURCES AND CROP EVOLUTION 49(1): 75-81. No
Summary Available.

Rao, SA; Bounphanousay, C; Schiller, JM; Alcantara, AP; and Jackson, MT. (2002). GENETIC RESOURCES
AND CROP EVOLUTION 49(1): 83-88. Summary: The authors found that Lao farmers assign names to
traditional rice varieties that relate to the production ecosystem, endosperm type, and maturity. The name also
often indicates a variety's particular morphological features or other unique characteristics. Varieties are also
named for plants, flowers, fruits and animals. Resistance to or tolerance for commonly occurring stress factors
like drought, floods, lodging, birds, weeds and adaptation to soils are also reflected in some rice variety names.
Use of this information can help select germplasm for rice improvement.